Artykuły

  • A Blind Man Leads a Blind Man? Personalised Nutrition-Related Attitudes, Knowledge and Behaviours of Fitness Trainers in Hungary

    Anna Kiss, Laura Pfeiffer, József Popp, Judit Oláh, Zoltán Lakner „A Blind Man Leads a Blind Man? Personalised Nutrition-Related Attitudes, Knowledge and Behaviours of Fitness Trainers in Hungary”, Nutrients 12(3):663 · February 2020, DOI: 10.3390/nu12030663

    Abstract:
    It is well-documented that fitness trainers could play an important role in the nutrition-related behaviour of their clients based on their personalised nutrition-related counselling activities, but there are considerable concerns all over the world about the level of their knowledge to become nutritional coaches. In the framework of the current study based on qualitative (focus-group interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire and analysis of responses by multivariable methods, as well as structural equation modelling) methods, it has been proven that (1) theoretically, both the trainers and the dietitians acknowledge the importance of cooperation in the optimisation of coaching efficiency and advisory work due to some “professional jealousness” and differences in professional background, as well as in culture, so it is hard to find a common platform for cooperation, especially in market segments characterised by relative low levels of purchasing power; (2) due to lack of regulation, there is a high heterogeneity of professional competences of trainers in general and their nutritional competences, in particular; (3) the majority of trainers do not have an objective picture on his/her effective nutritional knowledge, and they often offer a much wider scope of services (e.g., nutritional counselling for clients with chronic diseases) which are well beyond their professional knowledge and (4) the dietary guidelines have not become an integral part of professional knowledge, even at the level of specialists. To improve the current—in some cases, dangerous—situation, the following steps should be taken: (1) enhancement of the level of professional qualification of future trainers, integrating the practice-oriented approaches and emphasising the role of teamwork by simulation-based practices; (2) highlighting in a clear way the professional and ethical boundaries of the activities of trainers and (3) working out an efficient incentive system for the continuous professional development of trainers.

    Keywords: coaches; dietary counselling; gym; focus group; personalised nutrition; structural equation modelling

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/3/663/htm

     

     

     

  • A comparative study of low-level management s attitude to marketing and innovations in the luxury fashion industry: pro - or anti-CSR?

    MacGregor  R., Sroka W., MacGregor Pelikanova, R. (2020), A comparative study of low-level management s attitude to marketing and innovations in the luxury fashion industry: pro - or anti-CSR? Polish Journal of Management Studies 21(2), 240-255  DOI: 10.17512/pjms.2020.21.2.17 

    Abstract:
    The senior management of several luxury fashion businesses proclaim a commitment to sustainability and an engagement in all CSR categories. However, how is this projected in the lower levels of management, i.e. do ‘low-level’ managers exercise their marketing and innovations tasks in a manner compatible with the proclaimed CSR? An investigative pioneering case study of the attitude of the low-level management of top luxury fashion businesses in Prague reveals that their marketing and innovation endeavours have very little in common with the CSR strategies and priorities set officially for the business. The comparative holistic Meta-analysis of three rounds of interviews points to critical problems generated by both systematic and individual deficiencies of the lower level managers that lead to their reduced knowledge and/or interest towards linking the marketing and innovation functions with CSR commands. This new discovery of the asymmetry of the attitude to marketing and innovations has strong implications for management research at the academic level, as well as for the practical drive for a more effective and efficient management. In this paper, the 1st objective identified rather a satisfactory attitude of owners and senior managers, but the 2nd investigative objective showed that low-level management often has a reduced knowledge and/or interest in linking the marketing and innovation functions with CSR best practice. The differences across even the same groups, as well as other intrinsic data proposed with respect to the 3rd objective suggest that the causes for such a deplorable situation are both systematic and individual. The consequences include a loss of clientele. It is amazing that luxury fashion businesses with such developed CSR statements and advertised marketing and innovation actions linked to basically all CSR categories have front-line employees, including managers, who do not share such commitments, and, instead, excessively go into auxiliary aspects and ultimately frustrate CSR approaches.

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), luxury fashion, management, sustainability

    Full text: http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-3ae7bfa6-a2c1-4e64-86a4-44a1feda6eee

     

  • A theoretical analysis of social entrepreneurship: The case of Poland and South Africa

    Włodzimierz Sroka, Natanya Meyer (2021). A theoretical anlysis of social entrepreneurship: The case of Poland and South Africa. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.15549/jeecar.v8i1.596

    Abstract:
    As global trends are moving more towards social inclusion and green entrepreneurship many countries are changing the way they do business. This has sparked an interest in social entrepreneurship. Although much research has been conducted on this issue, fewer country comparisons are available and these could lead to an improved understanding of the topic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide a theoretical analysis of social entrepreneurship comparing Poland and South Africa specifically focusing on the history, challenges, policy, and government support initiatives. The study followed a qualitative approach using document analysis by way of an intensive literature study. Findings indicated that social entrepreneurship is a global phenomenon and although it is of imperative importance as a means to improved social conditions, several barriers and challenges are prevalent. As with traditional for-profit businesses, social enterprises’ main barrier is access to finance.

    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; barriers; policy and government support; Poland; South Africa

    Full text: https://www.ieeca.org/journal/index.php/JEECAR/article/view/596/312

  • Academia is racist: Barriers women faculty face in academic public contexts

    Mohamed Mousa, https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12343

    Abstract: 
    Through addressing four public universities in Egypt, the author of this paper aims to uncover the main barriers women faculty face when fulfilling their academic roles. The author employed a qualitative research method through conducting semi-structured interviews with 40 female academics. Moreover, he subsequently used thematic analysis to determine the main ideas in the transcripts. The author of the present study has identified the poor representation of women faculty at both professorial levels and in managerial academic positions. The study indicated that heavy teaching loads, lengthy working hours, accusations of low productivity, growth of masculine power distance and limited empowerment opportunities are the main barriers hindering the status and representation of women faculty in the addressed universities. The findings also showed that social realities, which include the implicit relations among humans (male and female faculty in this case) in the workplace and also relations between humans and their surrounding natural world (stakeholders in the surrounding environment in the present case) decide the volume of knowledge and level of power women might attain. This paper contributes by filling a gap in HR management and higher education, in which empirical studies on the status of women faculty and the barriers they face have been limited so far.

    Full text: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/hequ.12343

  • Activation of Investment Processes in the Context of Operation of Special Economic Zones in Poland, European Research Studies Journal

    Joanna Dzieńdziora, Małgorzata Smolarek, Barbara Piontek (2021). Activation of Investment Processes in the Context of Operation of Special Economic Zones in Poland, European Research Studies Journal. DOI: 10.35808/ersj/1954

    Abstract:    
    Purpose: The paper aims to present the potential of activation of investment processes in special economic zones in Poland. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study's general purpose was to diagnose the status of investments in projects implemented by companies as part of special economic zones in Poland. The study was carried out by analyzing reports of special economic zones forming a part of the Polish Economic Zone. Two economic zones were selected for analysis, namely the Katowice Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) and the Pomorze Special Economic Zone (PSEZ). These zones clearly differ concerning the permissible level of regional aid. Data from the years 2014-2019 were analyzed on account of the introduction, in 2014, of the so-called new map of regional aid for years 2014-2020. Findings: This paper is devoted to the issue of investments and the basic terminology accompanying it. Definitions and main types of investments were specified, and results of studies about the activation of investment processes in special economic zones for the benefit of the region between 2014 and 2019 were presented. Enterprises investments are dominant in analyzed zones. Simultaneously, more companies invest in KSEZ, huge ones. The SME sector's interest in both zones is comparable, resulting from too high amounts that must be invested in making use of the SEZ aid. Practical Implications: The current legal solutions and the applicable quality requirements increase the significance of special economic zones in forming growth and development processes based on a set of criteria relying on sustainable attributes. Both the instrument of special economic zones and their operation concept contribute to the formation of sustainable processes in the actual sphere. Liquidation of territorial restrictions offers an impulse to create an investment climate and the possibility of its use by all local governments to activate local investment zones and primarily the opportunity for such an instrument to be used by every company that is developing and investing. Originality/Value: The article is, hence, an attempt to fill the gap in creating an investment climate. Furthermore, studies concerning corporate investments in special economic zones may be an important source of information that enterprises can apply to determine further development areas.

    Keywords: Investments, economy, special economic zones, region.

    Full text: https://www.ersj.eu/journal/1954/download

  • Air Force NCOs Competency Profile in the Future Operational Environment

    by Ireneusz Nowak, Katarzyna Szczepanska-Woszczyna, Arkadiusz Letkiewicz, Iwona Klonowska

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The article aims to identify a profile of NCOs competencies ensuring the functioning of the Polish Air Force in the context of anticipated changes in the operational environment. Design/Methodology/Approach: The analysis of quantitative empirical material (303 questionnaires performed among NCOs) concerning the structure of competencies required in the future operational environment. Findings: Based on a set of diagnostic variables (potential indicators of competencies, here - 53 characteristics), a new set of 9 variables was created to express the relationships between the observed variables. Practical implications: A developed competency profile may be used to design a study program and thus will improve the educational system, will be helpful to evaluate the NCO. The model may help in implementing changes to use the employees' competencies effectively. Originality/Value: It is complete research for determining the structure of NCO competencies suitable for the future operational environment.

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  • An assessment of students: emotional intelligence, learning outcomes, and academic efficacy. A correlational study in higher education.

    Shafait Z, Khan MA, Sahibzada UF, Dacko-Pikiewicz Z, Popp J (2021) An assessment of students’ emotional intelligence, learning outcomes, and academic efficacy: A correlational study in higher education. PLoS ONE 16(8): e0255428. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255428

    Abstract
    The purpose of this empirical study is to investigate the effects of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on learning outcomes (social, cognitive, self-growth outcomes and satisfaction with the university experience) of students in Chinese research universities. This study further examines the mediating role of student trust in teachers (emotional and cognitive learning) and learning orientation (commitment to learning) in the relationship between EI and learning outcomes. This intent of this study was to examine the direct effects of learning outcomes on students’ academic efficacy (cognitive skills and standardised tests). This study used a sample frame of 454 students from research universities in China. The relationships were tested through the partial least squares’ structural equation modelling method. The results reveal that EI has a significant impact on learning outcomes. Furthermore, an indirect relation between EI and learning outcomes is established through student trust in teachers and in the learning orientation. The direct relation between learning outcomes and student academic efficacy is also established. There is a lack of studies that investigate the relationship of EI, student trust in teachers, learning orientation, learning outcomes and student academic efficacy. This is one of the initial research studies that not only empirically examine the interface of EI and learning outcomes of students of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) but offers insights into the existing literature by concurrent investigation of the mediating role of student trust in teachers and in the learning orientation in fundamental association, while explaining the association between learning outcomes and students’ better academic efficacy.

    Full text: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255428 

  • Analysis of Family Engagement in the Evaluation of Organisational Effectiveness in Family Businesses

    Szczepańska-Woszczyna K., Hyss K., Czart P, (2020) Analysis of Family Engagement in the Evaluation of Organisational Effectiveness in Family Businesses. European Research Studies Journal. Volume XXIII, Special Issue 2, pp. 962-972., DOI: 10.35808/ersj/1909

    Abstract:
    Purpose: This elaboration features an attempt of describing the research sample’s uniformity and estimating the average engagement of family members in the family business’ functioning (hereinafter referred to as family engagement). The study’s context was based on a set of organisational effectiveness factors (identified independent variables) and an evaluation of their significance. In this paper, the effectiveness is deemed as the engagement of family members in the functioning of family businesses. Methodology: The paper presents the results of surveys conducted among 200 Polish family businesses with registered seats in two voivodeships. Organisational effectiveness was measured in terms of 8 key analysis fields identified. Findings: The paper presents the results of own research on organisational effectiveness in family businesses. It especially confirmed the alternative hypothesis that the dependent variable, i.e. family engagement, in terms of evaluating 8 independent variables using statistical tests, does not have a normal distribution. Practical Implications: The obtained results provide the basis for selection and future use of advanced statistical tests enabling the verification of a substantial dependency between the dependent variable (e.g. family engagement) and the independent variables identified within organisational effectiveness fields. Originality/Value: The conducted study supplements the knowledge on strategic management by specifying a set of family member engagement factors in family businesses. When analysing the widespread phenomenon of organisational effectiveness in family businesses, the authors analysed family engagement in terms of the effectiveness’ studied variables.

    Keywords: Family business, organisational effectiveness, engagement of family member

    Full text: https://www.ersj.eu/journal/1909

     

  • Analyzing Transportation Logistics and Infrastructure Sustainability in the Iberian Peninsula: The Case of Portugal Mainland

    by José Manuel Naranjo Gómeza, Rui Alexandre Castanhoc, Ana Vulevicb

    Abstract:

    Transportation is one of the most meaningful references of unsustainability in regional urban areas. This difficulty is stimulating urban planners and decision-makers to introduce the concept of sustainability into their policy design at multiple levels. Contextually, through exploratory tools, the present study aims to analyze the impacts over the socio-economic sphere that those new plans could bring to the region and the local populations of Portugal Mainland. Also, analyses of regional disparities in Portugal focused on the socio-economic aspects and analyses on territorial cohesion concept where indicators organized in policy-oriented territorial objectives and then combined with an analytical framework. Besides, the study especially intends to cover sustainable accessibility (also one of the components of territorial cohesion), which aims to help regional planners determine the inherent obstacles and design possible alternatives at the strategic planning level for sustainable regional transport and land-use arrangement. The study shows that exist inequalities in the distribution of absolute accessibility. Value of accessibility in category “very high” in 192 towns (68,57%) settlements, in the central, coastal territory along the dual carriageway and national road corridors, live 81,7% population. Nevertheless, the regional inequalities pattern did not vary considerably in Portugal's last decade of funding policies.

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  • Application of smart technologies in Metropolis GZM to reduce harmful emissions in district heating systems.

    by Grzegorz Kinelski, Jakub Stęchły, Adrian Sienicki, KaiCzornik and Piotr Borkowski

    Abstract:
    Harmful emissions from heating installations have recently received public attention in Poland. Polish municipalities mainly take their heat from local district heating networks with large-scale coal-fired heat sources. Today, transition to nonemissive sources on this scale would be impractical. The easiest way to reduce carbon emissions is to limit heat consumption, but at the same time, to preserve thermal comfort, the application of smart technologies is necessary. Veolia operates on 71 district heating systems in Poland, including Warsaw, Lodz, and Poznan. Since heat consumption in Warsaw and Metropolis GZM is at a similar level, this is a case study of Hubgrade automation system application within the Warsaw district heating network. This paper also presents results of simulation of harmful emission reduction potential in Metropolis GZM. Simulation results show that there is a potential for saving approximately 275 kt of CO2 for the whole Metropolis GZM.

    Keywords: district heating; carbon emissions; decarbonization; energy efficiency; Hubgrade

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  • Assessment of High-Speed Rail Service Coverage in Municipalities of Peninsular Spain

    José Manuel Naranjo Gómez 1,2,3,* , Rui Alexandre Castanho 3,4,5,6 , José Cabezas Fernández 3,6 and Luís Carlos Loures 3,7,8; Assessment of High-Speed Rail Service Coverage in Municipalities of Peninsular Spain, Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020011

    Abstract:
    The Spanish transportation and housing infrastructure plan has planned that in 2024 all provincial capitals in peninsular Spain are to be connected by high-speed rail lines. Nowadays, 35 stations are already operational. These stations and the roads to access them are very important, as these are the only access points for travelers to benefit from the high railway speed. The goal of this study is to evaluate the railway coverage of high-speed services in Spanish peninsular municipalities in 2018 and planned for 2024. A methodology and research tools related to accessibility from municipalities to stations have been used, based on Geographic information Systems. An interaction model was used based on the floating catchment area in three steps. The resulting thematic maps and the analysis of the number of municipalities and the resident population is based on the degree of coverage in 2018. Likewise, in 2024 almost all of the municipalities are planned to have high high-speed railway coverage, these being the most densely populated. The analysis allowed us to present a detailed view of the problem; a methodology and a specific application framework are offered to make the high-speed rail services in Spain more equitable. 

    Keywords: floating catchment area in three steps; railway stations of high-speed lines; sustainable and equity planning; territorial accessibility; territorial governance and management

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2412-3811/5/2/11

  • Barriers of organizational inclusion: A study among academics in Egyptian public business schools

    Mousa M., Massoud H., Ayoubi R., Puhakka V.,  (2020). Barriers of organizational inclusion: A study among academics in Egyptian public business schools. Human Systems Management. 39., 251-263 DOI: 10.3233/HSM-190574

    Abstract:
    OBJECTIVE: Human resources management and organization studies. This paper investigates the main barriers of organizational inclusion practices of academics in Egyptian higher education institutions, and proposes interventions to enhance academics’ sense of organizational inclusion. METHODS: A total of 350 academics were contacted and 245 of them were interviewed in 49 face-to-face focus groups. The interview length for each focus group is about 45 minutes and is conducted in Arabic, the mother tongue of all respondents. Upon conducting the interviews, the authors used thematic analysis to determine the main ideas in the transcripts.RESULTS: After carefully analyzing the interviews, the authors of this paper could not identify any adoptable paradigm for the systematic practice of organizational inclusion experienced by academics in the chosen business schools. Moreover, the authors of the present paper have explored some barriers hindering the sense of organizational inclusion among academics and subsequently classified them as cultural, functional and psychological barriers.CONCLUSION: The authors propose three prompt managerial interventions for Egyptian public business schools. The first is economic, and proposes a link be created between the financial remuneration of professors and the number of academic theses they supervise. The second is functional, and strongly recommends that units be created for managing foreign educational grants and scholarships. The third is cultural, and proposes that cultural tolerance units be required to manage any discriminatory and unequal opportunity claims. This paper contributes by filling a gap in HR management in the higher education sector, in which empirical studies on the practices of organizational inclusion have been limited so far.

    Keywords: Inclusion, organizational inclusion, business schools, Egypt

    Full text: https://bit.ly/38c9aUD

     

  • Bibliometric Literature Analysis of a Multi-Dimensional Sustainable Development Issue. Energy Poverty.

    Ulucak R.,Sari R., Erdogan S., Castanho R.A.,

    Abstract:
    Energy plays a critical role in building a sustainable future—economically, socially, and environmentally. Energy poverty holds a similarly prominent position and covers certain economic, social and environmental issues that are underlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. Due to its multidimensional role in plans for achieving sustainable development, there is a growing body of literature focusing on various aspects of energy poverty. This study conducts a bibliometric analysis of this literature by utilizing more extensive data from the Web of Science, covering all information on energy poverty studies. The analysis reveals how energy poverty has attracted attention over time, who the leading authors are, which studies constitute outstanding contributions to the literature, which different sides of the research topic stand out, and also highlights the potential research gaps. The results reveal all the network flows among researchers, publications, journals, keywords, organizations, co-cited publications, and bibliographic coupling for energy poverty studies. The findings confirm the increasing popularity of energy poverty as a topic and demonstrate the increasing awareness of the issue in academia over time.

    Keywords: energy poverty; fuel poverty; energy deprivation; fuel deprivation; bibliometric analysis.

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/17/9780/htm

  • Can Cross-Border Healthcare Be Sustainable? An Example from the Czech-Austrian Borderland

    Böhm Hynek, Kurowska-Pysz Joanna, Can Cross-Border Healthcare Be Sustainable? An Example from the Czech-Austrian Borderland,  Sustainability 2019  11 (24); DOI: 10.3390/su11246980

    Abstract:
    Cross-border public services are considered to be one of the possible tools to eliminate the periphery position of border regions. The Czech part of the Gmünd/České Velenice divided twin town faces the problem of very distant healthcare, as the closest hospital on its side of the border is at around a 50 min car-drive, whereas the hospital in Austrian Gmünd is within several minutes reach. This paper analyses whether cross-border healthcare provision could help to eliminate this problem. It describes the EU legislative framework for the cross-border healthcare provision and states that it has been rather underused until now, with a minor exception of the situation between European Communities’ founding members. In the Gmünd/České Velenice context, the functional partnership run by the Lower Austria as the key actor was created. Its ability to use the INTERREG programme has helped to create conditions for a sustainable cross-border healthcare, but only as a partial solution restricted on an outpatient care. The main identified barriers are of administrative nature. To a partial surprise of authors, the mental barrier plays a minor role and could be overcome by systemic measures implemented by partners of this initiative.

    Keywords: Czech-Austrian cross-border cooperation; healthcare; twin towns; cross-border public services; EU funds

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/24/6980

  • Contexts of organizational learning in developing countries: the role of training programmes in Egyptian public banks

    M. Mousa, H.Massoud, R.Ayoubi (2021). Contexts of organizational learning in developing countries: the role of training programmes in Egyptian public banks. Personnel Review. ISSN: 0048-3486.

    Abstract: 
    Purpose – Little research into organizational learning in the public sector in developing countries’ is known. In this paper, the authors investigated the context of organizational learning in the public banks in Egypt. Design/methodology/approach – An ethnographic field research was employed by spending a month inside each of two public banks in Egypt. The ethnographic experience was operationalised by using direct observations of learning processes, procedures and practices, semi-structured interviews with learning specialists and focus group discussions with bankers. The authors used thematic analysis to determine the main themes in the previous data collection methods of ethnographic approach. Findings – The findings confirmed a lack of clear focus for the organizational learning practices employed by the banks, which highlights issues of seriousness in undertaking and/or tackling organizational learning, and increased doubts in relation to the added value of the different forms of formal trainings bankers participate in. To enhance the culture and maintain effective functioning of formal organizational learning, the authors suggest considering the following three categories of barriers: purpose-related barriers, implementation and evaluation barriers. Originality/value – Despite the generalisability caveats associated with the organizations studied, the authors believe that this paper contributes to the existing theory of organizational learning as it provides insights and understanding on the purpose, frame, conduct and results of organizational learning in the public sector. More specifically, the study is unique and is different from previous relevant studies as it relies on ethnographical approach in exploring how organizational leaning practices are perceived in public banks in developing countries.

    Keywords: Organizational learning, Training, Public employees, Public banks, Egypt

    Full text: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/PR-06-2020-0453/full/html

  • Coopetitive nature of Energy Communities- the Energy transition context

    K. Mucha – Kuś. M. Sołtysik, K. Zamasz, K. Szczepańska-Woszczyna. (2021). Coopetitive nature of Energy Communities- the Energy transition context. Energies - https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040931

    Abstract: 
    The decentralization of the large-scale energy sector, its replacement with pro-ecological, dispersed production sources and building a citizen dimension of the energy sector are the directional objectives of the energy transformation in the European Union. Building energy self-sufficiency at a local level is possible, based on the so-called Energy Communities, which include energy clusters and energy cooperatives. Several dozen pilot projects for energy clusters have been implemented in Poland, while energy cooperatives, despite being legally sanctioned and potentially a simpler formula of operation, have not functioned in practice. This article presents the coopetitive nature of Energy Communities. The authors analysed the principles and benefits of creating Energy Communities from a regulatory and practical side. An important element of the analysis is to indicate the managerial, coopetitive nature of the strategies implemented within the Energy Communities. Their members, while operating in a competitive environment, simultaneously cooperate to achieve common benefits. On the basis of the actual data of recipients and producers, the results of simulations of benefits in the economic dimension will be presented, proving the thesis of the legitimacy of creating coopetitive structures of Energy Communities.

    Keywords: energy cooperatives; coopetition; renewable energy sources; Renewable Energy Communities; management

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/4/931/htm

  • Coopetitive Platform: Common Benefits in Electricity and Gas Distribution

    By Wojciech Czakon ,Karolina Mucha-Kuś Maciej Sołtysik

    Abstract:
    Simultaneous collaboration and competition, or coopetition, has so far been studied among firms or non-profit organizations, leaving the public arena largely unexplored. This study focuses on identifying and measuring common benefit generation by local government actors in coopetition. We purposefully choose a metropolis composed of 41 municipalities setting to identify and measure those effects of coopetition that cannot be achieved by individual actors alone. We use real data and tariffs to run simulations that identify common and individual benefits generated in gas and electricity distribution. We find that savings can be achieved by mutualizing energy procurement, even though the distribution of savings is not equal among municipalities. We substantiate that energy communities can act as coopetitive platforms to optimize energy costs of municipalities.

    Keywords: coopetition; electricity and gas distribution costs; energy communities; metropolis

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  • Corporate social responsibility - Polish energy companies

    Magdalena M. Stuss, Zbigniew Makieła, Agnieszka Herdan and Gabriela Kuźniarska. "Corporate social responsibility - Polish energy companies". MDPI. Energies-1217281

    Abstract: 
    If corporate social responsibility (CSR) is expected to work efficiently, there should be a standardised approach for implementation of the CSR concept for all businesses, including companies operating in the energy sector. Although many companies declare compliance with CSR standards, further investigation should be undertaken to evaluate if and how those standards have been applied in practice. The aim of this research is to examine the level of standardisation of the CSR activities within Polish energy companies and explore the good practices developed by those companies. The Polish energy companies have been selected for the investigation as the literature review we conducted demonstrates that there is limited research in this area and there is a knowledge gap regarding how Polish energy companies apply CSR regulation in practice. To accomplish the stated aims, the following research questions were developed: (1) What is the essence of applying the CSR concept in Polish energy companies, and at what level of development is the concept applied? (2) To what extent do Polish energy companies have a common approach to the CSR concept, and in what areas are there differences? (3) To what extent have Polish energy companies applied global CSR standards and solutions? (4) Is there a gap between the declared measures of CSR and their actual implementation in Polish energy companies? The research methodology of this study is based on a systematic literature review of the sources acquired from databases such as ProQuest, Emerald, SCOPUS and the Jagiellonian University Library. The multiple case study approach was identified as the most suitable research tool. Companies for the study were selected according to their affiliation to the energy sector and listing on the main market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange. These two assumptions allowed us to base this study on the largest Polish energy companies that have international status. Six areas of CSR annual report disclosures have been identified and used for the investigation and analysis. This research looks at similarities and difference between these six aspects of CSRs disclosed by Polish energy companies. The investigation allows us to conclude that the top three energy companies use similar tools to build their CSR strategies: formalised CSR concept, published CSR reports, disclosure of CSR information on the company website, CSR related activities offered to stakeholders, obtained CSR certificates, and CSR awards. This indicates the existence of a standardised approach to CSR across Polish energy companies.

    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; energy sector; disclosures

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/13/3815/htm

  • Creating Reliable and Resilient Logistics Organizations for Unpredictable Conditions and Unexpected Future

    by Lech A. Bukowski and Pawel Sobczak

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop a general concept for creating resilient logistics organizations under the deep uncertainty that arises from unpredictable conditions and unexpected future, and to integrate it with a framework for ensuring the reliable operation of these organizations under conditions of predictable change. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research methodology was based on a transdisciplinary approach because logistics organizations have the nature of complex systems with different types of systems such as physical, cybernetic and social ones. The research approach used is based on a critical analysis of the literature and case studies from the authors' own experience. The research is supported by Ackoff's 'idealized design' approach and assumptions from The IRGC Risk Governance Framework. Findings: It was found that complex logistics organizations can be successfully modelled as Engineered System of Systems and managed according to the principles applicable to such systems. Furthermore, it was shown that it is possible to combine two different concepts, namely High Reliability Organization and Resilient Enterprise, into one coherent whole in the form of a Reliable and Resilient Logistics Organization. Practical Implications: For practical use of the developed concept, a framework was designed in the form of an algorithm describing the process of creating Reliable and Resilient Logistics Organization in the form of successive stages of action and decisions. Originality/value: The concept of the Reliable and Resilient Logistics Organization is wholly original and is the result of many years of our research into the behavior of complex socio-technical systems under uncertainty. The added value of the work is the model developed, which in the form of a framework can be used in practice in logistics organizations to ensure their continuous and effective operation under various conditions, both predictable and unpredictable changes in the environment.

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  • Current landscape and influence of big data on finance

    Md. Morshadul Hasan, József Popp, Judit Oláh; „Current landscape and influence of big data on finance”, Computer Science, Business; Journal of Big Data; 2020, Article number: 21 (2020), https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-020-00291-z

    Abstract:
    Big data is one of the most recent business and technical issues in the age of technology. Hundreds of millions of events occur every day. The financial field is deeply involved in the calculation of big data events. As a result, hundreds of millions of financial transactions occur in the financial world each day. Therefore, financial practitioners and analysts consider it an emerging issue of the data management and analytics of different financial products and services. Also, big data has significant impacts on financial products and services. Therefore, identifying the financial issues where big data has a significant influence is also an important issue to explore with the influences. Based on these concepts, the objective of this paper was to show the current landscape of finance dealing with big data, and also to show how big data influences different financial sectors, more specifically, its impact on financial markets, financial institutions, and the relationship with internet finance, financial management, internet credit service companies, fraud detection, risk analysis, financial application management, and so on. The connection between big data and financial-related components will be revealed in an exploratory literature review of secondary data sources. Since big data in the financial field is an extremely new concept, future research directions will be pointed out at the end of this study.

    Full text: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40537-020-00291-z

     

  • Developments in the income situation of the agricultural sector in the selected EU member states

    Zsarnóczai Sándor József, Popp József, Belás Jaroslav, Kovács Sándo (2021). Economics and Sociology. 14(1), 232-248. doi:10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-1/15

    Abstract:
    The objective of this research is to provide a case study in the field of ambitious agricultural and rural development programmes of four neighbouring EU member states, namely Czechia, Italy, Hungary, Austria. The efficient agricultural production and compensation for employees strengthen the income conditions of the rural population in the selected countries, which can give insights into the impact of rural population support for a sustainable and competitive agricultural sector for other countries. The traditional developing trends of their agricultural sectors and food production with similar agricultural economic features make the comparison of these countries possible. This analysis focuses  on the main economic indicators of agricultural income by emphasizing correlations among GDP growth, agricultural gross value added, compensation payments, wages and salaries, annual working units, food production per capita, agricultural emissions, rural population, nitrogen use, GDP in purchasing power parity per capita and arable land use based on principal component analysis with varimax rotation and principal component scores for describing the reasons of economic differences among the analysed countries represented on a two-dimensional map based on their Principal Component Scores at the economic development level by multisided overviews of regional economics, agricultural development and environmental conservation. The main conclusion is that rural population was able to increase income (compensation payments, wages and salaries) in the four Member States during the period from 2010 to 2018. Czechia with the highest average land use concentration got the best indicator of the gross factor income per annual working unit. In 2010, the gross factor income in Czechia was three times higher than that of Austria and higher than that of Italy. By the end of 2018 Czechia achieved a considerable production growth of 35.5% but the increase of its gross factor income was even more spectacular, twice as high compared to Italy and 2.5 times higher compared to Austria. Compensation for employees and salaries and wages played the most important role in keeping the rural population in its original places accompanied by sustainable development.

    Keywords: annual working unit, food production, gross value added, Hungary, rural development

    Full text: https://www.economics-sociology.eu/files/15E_1048_Zsarnoczai%20et%20al.pdf

  • Development of Teal Organisations in Economy 4.0: An Empirical Research. EUROPEAN RESEARCH STUDIES JOURNAL

    Borowiecki, Ryszard & Olesinski, Zbigniew & Rzepka, Agnieszka & Hys, Katarzyna. (2021). Development of Teal Organisations in Economy 4.0: An Empirical Research. EUROPEAN RESEARCH STUDIES JOURNAL. XXIV. 117-129. 10.35808/ersj/1953.

    Abstract: 
    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present the impact of Economy 4.0 on the development of Teal organizations. It has been assumed here that every organization must adapt to change by applying soft management factors (trust, knowledge, agility) in a changing reality. Methodology: During the research, the following work was carried out: desk research, individual in-depth interview, and a questionnaire. The study covered 300 respondents from various micro and small enterprises. The article is based on the first stage of empirical research conducted in 2020. Findings: The research results show that organizations must adapt to changes resulting from the evolution of organizations in Economy 4.0. Flexibility in adapting to change, agility and the willingness of employees to gain new work experience will be particularly demanded by Economy 4.0. Practical Implications: Given the rapid pace of social and economic change, it seems advisable to monitor the functioning of organizations, including business organizations, continuously and systematically in the face of Economy 4.0. Originality/Value: The presented results of the pilot studies show which soft skills will influence the development of organization, especially Teal. The way the organization develops and the direction it takes is the primary responsibility of its leaders.

    Keywords: development, teal organizations, Economy 4.0.

    Full text: https://www.ersj.eu/journal/1953

  • Does Gender Diversity Affect Workplace Happiness for Academics? The Role of Diversity Management and Organizational Inclusion

    Mohamed Mousa, "Does Gender Diversity Affect Workplace Happiness for Academics? The Role of Diversity Management and Organizational Inclusion", Public Organization Review 2020, http://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-020-00479-0

    Abstract:
    The author investigated the relationship between gender diversity and organizational inclusion and moved forward to examine whether gender diversity, diversity management and organizational inclusion predict workplace happiness by collecting 320 questionnaires from academics in three public universities in Egypt. A t-test was used to identify how gender may affect perceptions of diversity management and organizational inclusion. Hierarchical regressions were applied to test whether gender diversity, diversity management, and organizational inclusion can predict workplace happiness. The findings showed no relationship between gender diversity and organizational inclusion, and the authors confirmed that gender diversity, diversity management, and organizational inclusion can effectively predict workplace happiness. Theoretical and empirical implications are discussed at the end of the paper.

    Keywords: Gender diversity, Diversity management, Organizational inclusion, Workplace happiness, Academics. Egypt

    Full text: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11115-020-00479-0

     

  • Dominant Ego States in Transactional Analysis in the Context of Managers’ Stress Coping Strategies

    by Magdalena Kraczla

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The article aims to grasp the relations between the ego states constituting the personality of a human being (manager) and his/her ways of reacting to stressful situations. Knowledge in this area is fascinating from a cognitive point of view and gives excellent opportunities associated with the optimisation of human resources management in the practice of managing enterprises. Design/Methodology/Approach: Two research tools were used in the studies presented in this paper, the CISS Questionnaire and the Ego State Scale of Kälin. The CISS Test enables measuring stress coping styles on three scales, task-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, avoidance-oriented coping (SSU). The Ego State Scale refers to the functional model and its authors distinguish the following states, Controlling Parent, Nurturing Parent, Adult, Free Child and Adapted Child. Findings: The paper presents results of studies the purpose of which was to capture the relation between the ego states, comprising an individual’s identity, and the mode in which the individual reacts to stressful situations. The knowledge gathered about the correlation between the individual ego states and styles of coping with stress was subjected to a multi-aspect analysis and interpretation, whereas its results offer a good insight into the mechanisms and causes of such relations. Practical Implications: Knowledge about the mutual determinants between the ego states and the preferred styles of coping with stress also offers extensive possibilities of taking practical development steps, aimed at increasing the efficiency of individuals becoming liberated from the adverse impact of stress-inducing stimuli. Originality/Value: The received results have great cognitive and practical significance. They confirm a very close relation between personality and modes in which people handle stress and explain which type of personality features correlate with individual stress coping styles. Increasing interest in Transactional Analysis follows from the fact that it is a theory that delivers a series of practical indications, possible for implementation whilst taking correcting or development actions.

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  • Dynamic Cluster Analysis of Educated and Smart Society Development in European Union Countries

    by Małgorzata Markowska, Danuta Strahl and Andrzej Sokołowski

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyze the educational and smart society development process in the European Union countries, in 2003-2017. Design/Methodology/Approach: 17 variables have been used for the multivariate analysis of the problem. Multiple regression was the main method for missing data imputation. The number of clusters was identified in dendrogram of Ward’s agglomerative clustering method, and final partition obtained by k-means method. Composite Index of Educational and Smart Development has been proposed to measure the general level of each cluster. Findings: Five cluster have been identified and characterized. Their dynamic geographical composition changed over time with a tendency for many countries to move toward higher level clusters. Practical Implications: It seems that educational part of Europe 2020 Strategy works rather well for most of the EU countries Originality/Value: The choice of variables is always somehow subjective. Dynamic cluster analysis seems to be promising approach in identifying changes in both level and structure. The new measure for cluster stability has been proposed in the paper.

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  • Eco-Initiatives in Municipal Cultural Institutions as Examples of Activities for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Poznan

    by Mateusz Rozmiarek, Kevin Nowacki, Ewa Malchrowicz-Mośko, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz

    Abstract:
    The aim of the study is to demonstrate which pro-environmental initiatives consistent with the idea of sustainable development are undertaken by municipal cultural institutions in Poznan—the largest city in the Greater Poland region in Poland. The diagnostic survey was conducted by means of interviews with directors of municipal cultural institutions or their representatives. A total of 12 (out of 15) municipal cultural institutions from the city of Poznan were surveyed. All were asked to cite specific examples of their activities, visualising their institution’s approach to ecology. The results indicated that the institutions undertake numerous eco-initiatives, which very often fit into the discourse on so-called “deep ecology” and address the sources of the existing environmental crisis. Their activities are also aimed at stimulating a “return to nature” of the city’s inhabitants. In addition to initiatives aimed at the recipients of the offer of individual institutions, many institutions also pay attention to pro-environmental internal activities. In effect, the results could be divided into three general groups, which include internal institutional activities, the implementation of projects on environmental themes, and educational activities in the field of ecology. However, these activities were undertaken individually, as the survey revealed a lack of inter-institutional cooperation on ongoing projects. 


    Keywords: eco-initiatives; culture; cultural institutions; cultural events; cultural services; sustainable development; environment; ecological education; Poznan; Poland

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  • Economic Growth and Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of Financial Development: Evidence from Jordan

    Luma Al-Qudah and Barbara Piontek and Judit Oláh (2021): Economic Growth and Foreign Direct Investment in the context of Financial Development: Evidence from Jordan. European Research Studies Journal, Volume XXIV, Issue 2B, 762-782.p., https://doi.org/10.35808/ersj/2263, https://ersj.eu/journal/2263

    Abstract: 
    Purpose: The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship that exists among economic growth and FDI in Jordan empirically, and the role of financial development in shaping this relationship. Design/Methodology/Approach: This research used the process of deductive reasoning approach, associated with quantitative research, supported by empiricism and positivism as philosophical positions. Growth Indicators, FDI, financial development and other control variables data that covered the period between 1993-2018 were used. The analysis method of Johansen’s co-integration will be applied to figure out if the relationship between economic growth, FDI and financial development exist. Findings: The Johansen’s co-integration has found out that there is a long-term relationship between FDI, financial development and economic growth. Also, interaction between stock market financial development indicators and FDI was statistically evident. Practical Implications: Our research contributes to the literature by examining if FDI is growth inducing through networks of financial development, and other factors that could drive growth alongside with FDI. Research shows professionals that a well-developed financial market will improve FDI's spillover impact on economic growth. A well-developed stock market will speed up capital accumulation activities and output growth by providing sufficient liquidity services that improve linkages between domestic and foreign investors. Originality/Value: The novelty of the research is to determine the correlation between FDI and Economic growth in Jordan which should be accounted in the long-term development of all developing countries. At the same time, this study is a step forward towards analysing the relationship that exists among economic growth and FDI in Jordan.

    Keywords: Economic growth, FDI, financial development.

    Full text: https://www.ersj.eu/journal/2263

  • Effects of rectors’ narcissism on academics silence and commitment in the context of public universities

    Mousa M.; Chaouali, W.; Aboramadan, M.; Ayoubi, R., Abdelgaffar, H. (2020). Effects of rectors narcissism on academics’ silence and commitment in the context of public universities. International Journal of Organizational Analysis. DOI: 10.1108/IJOA-03-2020-2063

    Abstract:
    Purpose –This paper aims to focus on academic in four public universities located in Egypt to explore theeffect of narcissistic leadership on affective, continuance and normative commitment approaches with andwithout the mediating effect of academics’silence. Design/methodology/approach –The authors used a convenience sampling in which academicswere handed a questionnaire form to fill. In total, the authors distributed 280 forms and collected 214completed questionnaire forms. A structural equation was used to determine the effect of narcissisticleadership on the organizational commitment (affective, continuance and normative) of academics. Thesame measure was later used to assess the mediating role of the academics’silence on theaforementioned relationship. Findings –The authors of this paper found that narcissistic leadership positively associates withacademics’silence. Moreover, their perceptions of the narcissism of their leaders alleviate academics’emotional attachments (affective commitment) and moral obligations (normative commitment) toward theiruniversities, whereas the same perceptions of the narcissism of their leaders have no effect on theircontinuance commitment. Finally, the authors discovered a significant role for academics’silence inmediating the negative relationship between narcissistic leadership and their affective and normativecommitments.

    Keywords: Rectors, Narcissism, Academics, Silence, Commitment, Public universities, Egyp

    Full text: https://bit.ly/38WvYqt

     

  • Employee engagement in organisations during a pandemic

    by Magdalena Kot-Radojewska and Jacek Wodz

    Abstract: 

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study on employee engagement in organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper presents the results of a survey conducted during the pandemic among 123 employees working for organisations of various kinds. The questionnaire survey was carried out using the computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) methodology. The process was based on certain claims of grounded theory. Statistical analysis was carried out using basic methods of descriptive statistics, statistical tests and selected methods of multivariate statistics, including the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, Bartlett's Test of Sphericity. Findings: The overall level of organisational engagement in organisations that operated during the pandemic was rated as moderate by the respondents, with the most favourably assessed issues including communication between employees and supervisors, sense of job stability, concern for the fate of the organisation, mutual inspiration to work, and employees' sense of satisfaction with being part of the organisation. The results also revealed statistically significant correlations between the different elements of organisational engagement. Practical Implications: The practical implications that arise from the results obtained in the study concern mainly the role of organisational engagement for effective operations of an organisation, including during a crisis situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The results show that taking action to improve communication and cooperation, promoting the policy of equal opportunities and capabilities, fair treatment and evaluation of employees and many other instruments can foster the development of employee engagement, which brings results in the form of higher level of job satisfaction, stability and efficiency, thus improving the operations of the organisation. Originality/Value: This paper is an attempt at filling the gap in the area of the status, role and value of organisational engagement during this pandemic, which may prove to be relevant for companies given the current circumstances, as well as possible future unpredictable challenges.

    Keywords: Human Resource Management; engagement; COVID-19; pandemic; crisis.

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  • Energy Efficiency in Transportation along with the Belt and Road Countries

    Usman Abkar, József Popp, Hameed Khan, Muhammad Asif Khan, Judit Oláh  "Energy Efficiency in Transportation along with the Belt and Road Countries", Energies 2020, 13(10), 2607 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102607

    Abstract:
    China’s huge investment in the “belt and road initiative” (BRI) may have helped improve the economic level of participating countries, but it may also be accompanied by a substantial increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The BRI corridors aim to bring regional stability and prosperity. In such efforts, energy efficiency due to increased transport has been overlooked in the recent literature. This paper employed a data envelopment analysis of the slack-based measurement (SBM) for bad output to assess the transport energy efficiency of 19 countries under the BRI economic corridors. By using the most cited transport-related input variables, such as vehicles, labor, motor oil, jet fuel, and natural gas, this study first analyzes the transport energy efficiency by first assuming the output variables individually and then takes two years as a pre- and post-BRI case by considering the aggregated output model. The results show an increase in economic activity but a decline in transport energy efficiency in terms of consumption and emissions. 

    Keywords: transport energy; data envelopment analysis (DEA); slack-based measurement; economic corridors; belt and road initiative

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/10/2607/htm

  • European Green Deal as a matter of security

    by Paulina Polko

    Abstract: 
    The European Green Deal (EGD) is a set of policy initiatives by the European Union with the overarching and ambitious aim of making Europe climate neutral in 2050. Being world's first 'climate-neutral bloc' and fulfilling other goals extending to many different sectors, including construction, biodiversity, energy, transport, food and others has also an impact on different sectors of security. The implementation of the tasks set out in the EGD requires taking into account the necessity of sustainability in reaching the goals, including not violating sectoral security in the EU Member States. Nexus approach might be useful in the processes of finding and implementation of particular solutions.

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  • Evaluating Consumers’ Adoption of Renewable Energy

    By Khalid B., Urbański M., Kowalska-Sudyka M., Wysłocka E., Piontek B.,

    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consumers’ adoption of renewable energy in Poland. The study focused on finding out the factors that influence the adoption of the technology, considering its importance in conserving the environment. The study was conducted using a quantitative method, with primary data collected from 467 households using renewable energy technology in Poland. The research adopted the TAM model. The independent variables of the study included renewable energy initial cost, environmental concern, risk and trust for renewable energy, ease of use, financial incentives, and relative advantage. The dependent variable was renewable energy adoption. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyze the study hypotheses. The research found out that environmental concerns, ease of use, financial incentives, and relative advantage have a positive and significant influence on adoption of renewable energy technology in Poland. However, renewable energy initial cost and risk, and trust for renewable energy did not significantly influence renewable energy adoption. The study recommended that the stakeholders should consider the aspects of environmental concern as a key role player in pushing for adoption of renewable energy. The government, non-governmental organizations, and concerned stakeholders should consider giving incentives towards renewable energy adoption. Creating awareness regarding the benefits and strengths of renewable energy should be prioritized to the households.


    Keywords: renewable energy; green environment; technology adoption; technology acceptance model

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  • Evaluation of the Sectoral Energy Development Intensity in the Euro Area Countries

    Ginevičius R., Bilan Y., Kądzielawski G., Novotny M., Kośmider T.,

    Abstract:
    National economic development largely depends on the development of the energy sector. Its condition is most commonly assessed based on the situation over the last year. An alternative approach, however, is to evaluate fluctuations in development that have occurred over a longer period. In this paper, both methodologies have been applied, in order to assess, based on the results, which of them is more accurate. The article hypothesizes that the second method is more accurate. To prove this empirically, values representing the energy development in various sectors (industrial, agricultural, transport, service and the other (miscellaneous) sectors) in various European countries over the 2009–2018 period were estimated. The development fluctuations that occurred during the period under consideration were evaluated according to two parameters—intensity and stability. The first parameter was taken to be the difference between the values representing energy development in a given sectors at the end and beginning of the period under consideration. The second parameter was taken as the aggregate change across consecutive time slots during which positive or negative fluctuations occurred. The value of energy development in a particular economic sector was estimated as the product of the latter coefficient and the development intensity indicator. Comparison of the results representing evaluation of energy development based on the methodology proposed, and the analysis of the situation in the last year for which data was available revealed that the results in both cases differed, with the values varying from 2% (for the transport sector) to 4.5% (for the agricultural sector). Taking into account the fact that the indicator representing energy development in particular economic sectors was estimated as a percentage of the total sectoral energy consumption, this difference was relatively significant (22.7 and 1.5% respectively). Thus, the findings suggest that application of the proposed methodology is relevant. The methodology provides a greater potential to adequately research issues related to national economic development

    Keywords: sectoral energy development; quantitative evaluation

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/17/5298/htm

  • Exploring the Role of Innovation in Academic Entrepreneurship

    Zbigniew J. Makieła,  Magdalena M.Stuss, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna "Exploring the Role of Innovation in Academic Entrepreneurship"; Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019, Madrid, Spain

    Abstract:
    Academic entrepreneurship is increasingly a necessity in the development of universities. It is an important source of innovation as well as business necessity for the university. In practice, there are many varieties and models of academic entrepreneurship, and the choice of a specific solution determines the specificity of the university. The aim of the paper is to explore the area of innovation activity of academic entrepreneurship in Poland. The authors aim to analyse factors which affect the development of academic entrepreneurship. The research was a case study of the best Polish universities.

    Keywords: academic entrepreneurship, academic enterprises, knowledge management by university, spin off enterprises, spin out enterprises

     

     

  • Flexible Multidimensional Scaling for Human Smart Development Analysis in EU Countries

    by Malgorzata Markowska, Andrzej Sokolowski, Danuta Strahl

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to propose a flexible procedure to Multidimensional Scaling, allowing to calculate the input distance matrix based on slightly different set of variables for each pair of objects. Design/Methodology/Approach: The procedure starts from the classical standardization of each variable. Before the calculation of flexible distance between two objects, we eliminate the variable with the biggest absolute value in the first object, and the same we do for the second object. So, we have two variables less in the list for these two objects. If by chance the same variable is pointed for elimination by both objects, the next variable with the biggest (out of both objects) absolute standardized value should be eliminated. With this procedure, each element of distance matrix is based on the same number of variables, but some of actual variables can be different. Findings: As an example – Flexible Multidimensional Scaling is performed on the list of 17 variables describing so called smart society, for 28 European Union countries. It shows how the proposed procedure works in practice. Practical Implications: The proposed flexible procedure can be used for the analysis of any problem treated by Multidimensional Scaling. Originality/Value: Flexible Multidimensional Scaling (FMDS) is a new idea and method. It eliminates some elements of subjective choice of initial variables and seems to be more robust against outliers than classical Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).

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  • Forecasting of Energy Demands for Smart Home Applications

    Bhatt, Dhowmya; D, Danalakshmi; Hariharasudan, A.; Lis, Marcin; Grabowska, Marlena. 2021. Forecasting of Energy Demands for Smart Home Applications.  Energies 14, no. 4: 1045. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041045

    Abstract:
    The utilization of energy is on the rise in current trends due to increasing consumptions by households. Smart buildings, on the other hand, aim to optimize energy, and hence, the aim of the study is to forecast the cost of energy consumption in smart buildings by effectively addressing the minimal energy consumption. However, smart buildings are restricted, with limited power access and capacity associated with Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units. It further suffers from low communication capability due to device limitations. In this paper, a balanced deep learning architecture is used to offer solutions to address these constraints. The deep learning algorithm considers three constraints, such as a multi-objective optimization problem and a fitness function, to resolve the price management problem and high-level energy consumption in HVAC systems. The study analyzes and optimizes the consumption of power in smart buildings by the HVAC systems in terms of power loss, price management and reactive power. Experiments are conducted over various scenarios to check the integrity of the system over various smart buildings and in high-rise buildings. The results are compared in terms of various HVAC devices on various metrics and communication protocols, where the proposed system is considered more effective than other methods. The results of the Li-Fi communication protocols show improved results compared to the other communication protocols.

    Keywords: HVAC systems; deep learning; energy utilization; smart buildings

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/4/1045/htm

  • Financial Regulation of Public-Private Partnerships: Forms, Models, and Use in Reengineering Conditions

    Kuzmin O., Shpak N., Komarnytska H., Sroka W., Zhezhukha V. (2020), Financial Regulation of Public-Private Partnerships: Forms, Models, and Use in Reengineering Conditions, Proceedings of 35th IBIMA Conference, 1-2 April 2020, Seville, Spain, pp. 3469-3483

    Abstract:
    One of the key and most problematic areas of interaction between public and private partners in the framework of the public-private partnership model is the sphere of financial relations between the parties. Before participating in a public-private partnership project, both private and public partners must give themselves answers to different questions of a financial and economic nature, most of which are not regulated by national legislation. The purpose of the study is to develop provisions for determining the structure of payments during the implementation of public-private partnership projects in the conditions of reengineering processes of public or private partners. They are based on the game theory tools and take into account options of strategies for private and public partners in the field of financial settlements. Game theory, which formed the basis of the proposed provisions, as well as comparison and systematization were used as research methods. As the result there were developed recommendations for the private partners, which in the framework of the public-private partnerships model have the opportunity to choose the most appropriate absolute value and relative share of initial and periodic payments in the framework of partnership projects depending on willingness to take risks regarding result indicators of the object of such partnership.

    Keywords: Game Theory, Public-Private Partnership, Public Partner, Private Partner

     

  • Formulation of Development Strategies for Regional Agricultural Resource Potential: The Ukrainian Case

    Nestor Shpak, Ihor Kulyniak, Maryana Gvozd, Jolita Vveinhardt, Natalia Horbal. Resources 2021, 10(6), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/resources10060057

    Abstract: 
    The agricultural sector is one of the leading ones in the economy of many countries, as it creates the basis for their economic growth. Every region in every country has its own unique sphere of social reproduction due to different resource potential, i.e., fertile soils, favourable climatic conditions, etc. Under such conditions, it is irrelevant to choose a single development path for this sector. Given these facts, the study formulates development strategies for regional agricultural development of the country. In particular, we grouped regions into clusters according to the level of development of crop production and stockbreeding potential, as well as investment attractiveness. The method of cluster analysis was used to group regions by the level of capacity development, whilst the matrix method was used to formulate a matrix for choice of the strategy to improve the agricultural potential of regions. On the basis of the conducted analysis, the 3D matrix for the choice of investment strategy of the regional agricultural development of the country depending on the level of development of crop production and stockbreeding potential and investment attractiveness was constructed.

    Keywords: agriculture; region’s agricultural resource potential; strategy; cluster analysis; matrix method; crop production

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9276/10/6/57/htm

  • Gender, workplace fun and organisational inclusion: an empirical study.

    Mousa M., Ayoubi, R. Massoud, H. (2020). Gender, workplace fun and organisational inclusion: an empirical study. EuroMed Journal of Busines  DOI: 10.1108/EMJB-12-2019-0149

    Abstract:
    Purpose - This paper addresses nurses working in public hospitals in order to find out how gender may affect their perception of both diversity management and organisational inclusion. Moreover, and given the novelty of workplace fun and the lack of research in this field in the context of developing countries, the authors explore the relationship between diversity management and organisational inclusion and explore workplace fun as a predictor of organisational inclusion.
    Design/methodology/approach - A total of 360 questionnaires were collected from nurses in three public hospitals in Egypt. The authors applied a t-test to identify how gender may affect perceptions of diversity management. Moreover, the authors employed hierarchical regressions to test gender and diversity management as predictors of organisational inclusion and to test whether workplace fun can predict organisational inclusion, too.
    Findings - The findings indicate that compared to their male colleagues, female nurses respond to diversity management practices more positively. Second, no significant statistical differences in the mean values for female and male nurses were observed regarding their perceptions of organisational inclusiveness. Third, diversity management is positively associated with organisational inclusion for the nurses. Finally, workplace fun mediates the relationship between diversity management perceptions and organisational inclusion.

    Keywords: organisational inclusion, workplace fun, nurses, Egypt

    Full text: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/EMJB-12-2019-0149/full/html

  • Good credit, bad credit ? the differential role of credit sources in life satisfaction

    Piotr Bialowolski, Dorota Weziak-Bialowolska, Good credit, bad credit ? the differential role of credit sources in life satisfaction, Journal of Consumer Affairs, DOI: 10.1111/joca.12388

    Abstract

    This study evaluated the short-term links between different forms of household debt—credit card debt, student debt, debt from relatives, mortgage debt, car debt, and debt arrears—and life satisfaction. To this end, a longitudinal dataset for the US population from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) was used and the propensity score difference-in-differences approach was applied. Credit card debt and student loans negatively impacted life satisfaction in the short term (up to 2 years). Mortgages and external financing for a car, however, were found to increase life satisfaction. The effects associated with the initial uptake and final repayment of a loan turned out to not be symmetrical—the end of any type of loan contract was not related to life satisfaction. In the case of involuntary debt (i.e., mortgage arrears), a significant negative impact on life satisfaction was noted when problems emerged, while a positive effect was found when the debts were paid off.

    Full text: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/joca.12388

  • Green Entrepreneurial Orientation and Green Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    Muangmee, Chaiyawit, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz, Nusanee Meekaewkunchorn, Nuttapon Kassakorn, and Bilal Khalid. 2021. Green Entrepreneurial Orientation and Green Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Social Sciences 10: 136. https:// doi.org/10.3390/socsci10040136

    Abstract: 
    Since environmental issues are becoming an integral part of business performances, policymakers and managers have started recognizing the importance of green innovation towards sustainable business performances. The role of the automotive parts industry is crucial in minimizing environmental degradation and promoting sustainable development. Yet few studies have focused on the connection between green entrepreneurial orientation and green innovation that may affect small and medium enterprise (SME) business performance. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the influence of green entrepreneurial orientation on green innovations, and its effects on sustainable business performances in the automotive parts industry in Thailand. The sample consists of 226 SMEs in the automotive parts industry in Thailand. The partial least square method (PLS-SEM) has been used for the analysis of data. The results of the study show that green innovations have the strongest influence on economic and environmental performances. This study contributes to resource-based view theory by incorporating green innovation as a strategic competency of SMEs’ performance. Further, green entrepreneurial orientation and green innovation can assist SME managers in understanding the factors leading to sustainable performance of businesses.

    Keywords: green entrepreneurial orientation; green innovation; economic performance; environmental performance; social performance

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/10/4/136/htm

  • Green Purchase Behaviour of University Students in Hungary: An empirical study

    Naz F., Oláh J, Dinu V., Magda R. (2020). Green Purchase Behaviour of University Students in Hungary: An empirical study. Sustainability  12(23) DOI: 10.3390/su122310077

    Abstract:
    In this modern age of digitalization, consumers have access to an ample amount of information regarding a product’s quality and benefits, which makes consumers more conscious of their consumption patterns and their impact on social and environmental development. Likewise, marketing strategies have also taken a dramatic leap forward and started focusing on social responsibility, ethics, and environmental protection. The notion of environmental sustainability has created a market niche over several decades and has captured the market of pro-environmental consumers. However, there are still many latent factors that are obstacles to shifting the behavior of consumers towards buying green products. The present study was conducted to recognize factors that affect the consumers behavior when purchasing eco-friendly products. They were collected from 1185 university students in Hungary. To analyze the data, multiple regression and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used. The results showed that willingness to pay (WTP) and green purchase intention (GPI) are the chief factors that affect the green purchase behavior (GPB) of these students. Environmental knowledge (EK) also has an important and positive impact on the green purchase behavior (GPB) of consumers, although regarding demographic variables, no such influence was noted. To conclude, the study showed that there was no bias in terms of age, gender, or qualification in the behavior of young students, as they have sufficient knowledge of environmental problems and are very willing to pay for environmentally friendly products. This study will create self-awareness among young consumers about their environmentally friendly purchasing behavior. This research will further benefit policymakers and marketers of the EU and Hungary to enhance their marketing strategies to promote their green products and their benefits. Future research can be developed on this theoretical framework and will help academicians to further reduce the research gap by using different constructs and methodologies.

    Keywords: green products; willingness to pay; perceived consumer effectiveness; environmental knowledge; green purchase behavior

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/23/10077

     

  • Higher Education Institutions as Partners in Growing Innovation of Local Economy

    Lis M., Faculty of Applied Sciences, WSB University in Dabrowa Górnicza, Zygmunta Cieplaka 1c, 41-300 Dabrowa Górnicza, Poland

    Abstract
    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are constantly evolving how they operate and their areas of academic interest. What remains unchanged is the fact that the raison d’être of a university is to fulfill the role of a citadel of knowledge to its environment. The aim of this paper is to show the relationship between HEIs and entities that have an impact on the growth of the local economy, in particular the possibilities of shaping local partnerships for innovation. The paper thus outlines the nature of individual sectors, the special role played by local governments, and the activities of universities related to innovation in the economy, based on the results of two collaborative studies co-sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and teams of researchers at the WSB University in Dąbrowa Górnicza. One of the projects was under the framework of the DIALOG program of 2019–2020 and the other used the framework of the Regional Excellence Initiative program of 2019–2022. The main part of this study was based on a survey of representatives of local governments; the survey was oriented towards identifying the opinions of local managers on the current and postulated roles of universities in the development of the local economy. The results presented in this study indicate, among other things, a significant differentiation of expectations concerning the cooperation of entities in the process of local development based on innovation and changes in the areas of this cooperation.

    Keywords: higher education institutions; universities; local economy; innovation; technology; knowledge transfer; entities.

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/10/8/316/htm 

  • How workplace fun is experienced in the banking sector? A qualitative study.

    Mousa, M. (2020). How workplace fun is experienced in the banking sector? A qualitative study. Employee relations DOI: 10.1108/ER-04-2020-0156

    Abstract:
    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate how workplace fun is experienced in two public Egyptian banks byaddressing the employees working there Design/methodology/approach – To investigate workplace fun in the selected banks, the author employed virtual ethnographic field research by spending two weeks (virtually and full-time) inside each of the two selected public banks. Besides this virtual ethnographic experience, the author employed semi-structured interviews and focus groups with the bank employees. Moreover, the author digitally examined documents such as posters, cartoons, brochures and a WhatsApp group. A total of 188 respondents were contacted and involved in eight semi-structured interviews and 36 focus groups. All interviews and focus groups were conducted in Arabic, the mother tongue of all respondents. The author subsequently used thematic analysis to determine the main ideas in the transcripts. Findings – The findings confirmed that workplace fun has not been carefully understood, developed and sustained in the selected public Egyptian banks. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this study is the first of its kind in the context of a developing nation to focus on workplace fun,and subsequently, it is the first to address the banking sector in one of the leading developing nations in Africa and the Middle - East. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the focus groups and interviews the author created a model of four obstacles: work environment realities, managerial practices, bank-related behaviour and meaning-related obstacles. Managing those four obstacles secures a relevant foundation on which banks can develop and maintain a systematic implementation of workplace fun and humour.

    Keywords: Workplace fun, Emancipation theory, Institutional theory, Social exchange theory, Public employees, Public banks, Egypt

    Full-text: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345309594_How_workplace_fun_is_experienced_in_the_banking_sector_A_qualitative_study

     

     

  • Identifying Processes of Smart Planning, Governance and Management in European Border Cities. Learning from City-to-City Cooperation (C2C)

    Rui Alexandre Castanho,"Identifying Processes of Smart Planning, Governance and Management in European Border Cities. Learning from City-to-City Cooperation (C2C)," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(19), pages 1-15, October (2019) 

    Abstract:
    Nowadays, especially in a European environment, it is almost given that border cities cooperate, or should cooperate. Nevertheless, several obstacles are jeopardizing the cities cooperation prosperity. Therefore, the understanding of most of the factors and processes possible involved in the success or failure of Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC) strategies and projects are pivotal to seek long-lasting territorial sustainability. Contextually, the study enables to identify three most influential factors and processes that should be considered to achieve territorial sustainability of CBC projects of City-to-City Cooperation (C2C) from a political-strategic perspective, being: Connectivity—movement between cities; political commitment; and the developing of common planning master plans.

    Keywords: borderlands; cooperation; smart planning; sustainable development; territorial governance and management

    Full text: https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jsusta/v11y2019i19p5476-d273114.html

     

  • Influence of leadership style on employees’ innovative activity

    Dacko-Pikiewicz Z., Zabolotniaia M., Cheng Z. "Influence of leadership style on employees’ innovative activity"  Polish Journal of Management Studies, 2019, Vol. 20, No. 1, pages 478-496  DOI 10.17512/pjms.2019.20.1.41

    Abstract:
    The aim of this research is to identify leadership styles that stimulate innovation at universities in China and Russia. The interviews were conducted with 116 respondents (managers and teachers), whose answers were ranked based on the Saaty scale. Then, answers were presented in the form of rating tables of leadership actions that promote and impede innovation. The results were analyzed in terms of Likert theory and Hofstede theory, which allowed the authors to identify the most effective leadership style for the managers of Chinese and Russian universities. Results show that the correction of the leader’s actions can stimulate innovation, as well as meet the expectations and needs of employees if managers and subordinates assess differently the importance of the work process aspects. An authoritative leadership style will help maintain trust within the team and prevent a significant removal of the leader from the immediate daily work process, which provokes a deepening of the difference in assessments of further innovative management and development.

    Keywords: leadership styles, innovative activity, innovation, university  

    Full text: http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/yadda/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-34f09d17-4fc1-450e-86b3-1e8159b6548d

     

  • Innovations in Human Resources Management: Instruments to Eliminate Mobbing

    Vveinhardt J., Sroka W., (2020). Innovations in Human Resources Management: Instruments to Eliminate Mobbing. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 2,182-195 DOI: 10.21272/mmi.2020.2-13

    Abstract:
    Mobbing in employees relationships is a widely researched and analyzed problem, and the concept is still developing. The deliberations mostly concentrate on negative aspects associated with this phenomenon, e.g., deterioration of the relationships between employees, devastating consequences for victims, deterioration of the company’s performance and image. The research on what managerial solutions can help reduce or eliminate the problem is still, however, not very abundant. Also, though many studies confirm the existence of this phenomenon in different sectors of the economy, there is not so much research on mobbing in relationships between employees in the leisure sector organizations. What is equally important, the dysfunction of relationships between employees includes the factors that have a significant impact not only on the quality of communication but also on the services provided in the organizations providing services. Given this fact, this study deals with the prevalence of mobbing in relationships between employees of the leisure sector organizations, distinguishing the most frequent forms of psychological pressure, and shaping the managerial solutions to eliminate the problem. The results of the qualitative research are presented using a semi-structured interview method. The research sample comprises employees of the Lithuanian hotels. The qualitative data analysis was performed using Emic and Etic approaches. The results achieved show that the dynamics of mobbing in the leisure sector organizations can be related to the economic recession, when the number of customers has decreased, corporate earnings shrunk. It affected the staff policy of organizations; it also shows that the relationship between the employees forming within organizations is significantly exposed to external circumstances, the influence of which could be compensated by the change in personnel policy. The originality of this article is presupposed by the fact that a complex, versatile model of managerial solutions designed to eliminate the phenomenon of mobbing is presented as the main result of the studies carried out. Using the proposed model, the practitioners will be able to look at the phenomenon of mobbing from a different angle, and researchers analyzing destructive relationships between the employees will be able to develop strategies of prevention and intervention of mobbing in relationships between employees based on the model.

    Keywords: mobbing, employee relations, human resource management, managerial solutions, qualitative methods, Lithuania

    Full text: https://mmi.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/en/journals/2020/2/193-206

     

  • Innovation Management in Polish Transport in the Industry 4.0 Perspective

    Miśkiewicz Radosław, Szczepańska-Woszczyna Katarzyna, Innovation Management in Polish Transport in the Industry 4.0 Perspective, Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019, Madrid, Spain

    Abstract:
    The transport like any kind of market with a typical business regulation mechanism, performs manyimportant functions for all participants in the process of exchanging transport services. Thisconviction contained in the White Papers (2001, 2011) led to building a common doctrine of transport development in the EU. In Poland, in the period of transformation and in the following years, the process of learning good practice in innovation management in the transport is visible. By trial and error, the system of legal regulations of transport, the reconstruction of existing infrastructure and the implementation of innovation management processes in transport companies structural and organizational changes, control systems and the systems of building the state transport policy were updated, which was reflected in the Transport Development Strategy. The aim of the paper is to present the current organizational status of Polish transport and to indicate innovative solutions that aim to eliminate development barriers that impede the implementation of solutions resulting from the P4 concept. It is a review based on literary research by means of the method of analysis and criticism of the literature in Polish and English.

    Keywords: innovation, innovation management in transport, transport structure, transport management, telematics systems, IT in transport

  • Impact of remittances inflows on trend in country’s exchange rate

    Oleksiv, I., Mirzoieva, D., Shpak, Y., Sroka, W. (2020),  Impact of remittances inflows on trend in country’s exchange rate, 35th IBIMA Conference, 1-2 April 2020, Seville, Spain, pp. 3484-3491

    Abstract:
    Rapid increase of remittances inflows is inherent for many developing countries. Such inflows affect exchange rate on national currency. Given this fact, the aim of our paper is to analyse the interdependence between remittance inflows and trend of Ukrainian hryvnia exchange rate. The research results of the current article is the model of remittances inflows influence on nominal effective exchange rate of Ukrainian hryvnia built using data from 1996 to 2019 period. We estimate linear regression model with trend component and autoregressive distributive lag model, because of existence of autocorrelation. Research showed that in current situation in Ukrainian economy NEER in previous period (lag 1) depreciates current NEER value as well, as remittances inflows with lag 2. Such results require further investigation as they are contrary to other studies.

    Keywords: remittances, nominal effective exchange rate, balance of payments.

  • Impact of Women and Independent Directors on Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from an Emerging Economy

    Wang, C.; Deng, X, Álvarez-Otero, S.; Sial, M.S.; Comite,U.; Cherian, J.; Oláh, J. Impact of Women and Independent Directors on Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from an Emerging Economy. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6053. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116053

    Abstract

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the impact of women and independent directors on corporate social responsibility and financial performance. We use the fixed effect regression model as a baseline methodology. The data set includes information from 2010 to 2019 regarding Chinese non-financial companies, from which we use yearly information. The RSK rating is used for the assessment of corporate social responsibility reporting, ranging from 0 to 100, and other data are taken from the China stock market and accounting research (CSMAR) database. We use a two-stage least square (TSLS) regression model to control the possible problem of endogeneity. The empirical results show that gender diversity in boards significantly and positively affects CSR reporting. We do not find an effect due to non-executive directors on CSR reporting. The presence of non-executive directors on a board is mostly trivial in the case of China, as they do not have much influence with regard to decision making, especially related to CSR reporting. The control variables, such as board size, board member meeting frequency and leverage, are also found to have a significant effect on CSR reporting. Therefore, our results add a new aspect to the emerging literature on CSR reporting, especially in China. Furthermore, our results are robust with regard to the alternative variables under consideration. Our study has important implications. Our research enriches the existing literature on CSR and highlights the importance of female and independent directors having an impact on decisions related to the increased reporting of CSR activities. Our study contributes to the existing literature by presenting a pioneering investigation of the effect of female and independent directors on CSR reporting, as well as shedding light on the relationship in the context of an emerging economy.

    Keywords: female directors; independent directors; CSR reporting; corporate governance; China

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/11/6053/htm

  • Implementation of circular economy in Ukraine: context of European integration

    Shpak N., Kuzmin O., Melnyk O., Ruda M., Sroka W. (2020), Implementation of circular economy in Ukraine: context of European integration, Resources, 9(8), 96 DOI: 10.3390/resources9080096

    Abstract:
    The current model of resource management mainly contributes to mass short-term consumption, which creates an unstable and extremely critical situation on the planet. Going beyond the traditional industrial model of Take-Make-Waste, the circular economy aims to reduce waste (and therefore minimize costs) and to redefine sustainable development. This entails a gradual separation of economic activity from the consumption of scarce resources and the removal of waste from the system. In order to foreground the principles of a circular economy in Ukraine, this study analyzes its benefits based on the relevant experience of the EU. The paper also presents the results of research and content analysis on the situation of waste management in Ukraine and compares the trends using key indicators. The core of the paper is developing a conceptual model of making and coordinating management decisions on the implementation of business projects in the context of a circular economy in Ukraine. A multifactor model (the Farrar–Glauber method was further developed) has been built by identification of the main factors, i.e., the volume of generated waste from economic activity per unit of GDP at constant prices, emissions of pollutants, and capital investments for the protection of the environment. Factor coefficients indicate how many units will change the resultant trait Y, measured in thousand tonnes, if one of them changes by 1 (each in units of measure). It means that if the volume of waste generated from economic activity per unit of GDP at constant 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) prices decreases by 1 kg/$1000, waste management of I–IV classes will be reduced by 952,737 thousand tonnes. The approbated model can be used to analyze the situation with recycling in the EU countries, considering the amount of capital investment in environmental protection. 

    Keywords: waste management; recycling; responsible consumption; circular economy; European integration

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9276/9/8/96

     

  • Inter-organizational cooperation and innovative activity of enterprises in Poland: evidence from a panel data analysis

    Grzegorz Kądzelawski, Justyna Łapaj "Inter-organizational cooperation and innovative activity of enterprises in Poland: evidence from a panel data analysis”; Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019 Madrit, Spain 

    Abstract:
    The aim of this study is to test the influence of inter-organizational cooperation of the innovative activity of enterprises operating in Poland. For that purpose, an econometric panel data model was developed. The conducted study has shown that the factor which significantly and positively influences the innovative activity of enterprises in Poland is cooperation they undertake with other entities, i.e. other businesses and non-commercial institutions, such as universities or research centers. The findings of the analyses performed in the course of this paper confirmed that another significant factor encouraging business innovation is the fact that many enterprises engage in cooperation in the form of cluster initiatives.

    Keywords: Inter-organizational cooperation, innovative activity, panel data, Poland.

     

  • Inter-Organizational Trust on Financial Performance: Proposing Innovation as a Mediating Variable to Sustain in a Disruptive Era

    Judit Oláh, Yusmar Ardhi Hidayat ,Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz, Morshadul Hasan, József Popp

    Abstract: 

    Hungarian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies have an essential role to play in a disruptive era. ICT firms should collaborate and innovate to obtain profit. The elusive correlation between trust in business partners and financial performance inspired this study, which proposed innovation as a mediating variable. The research had two objectives: to investigate the effect of inter-organizational trust on financial performance and innovation and to observe the role of innovation in improving financial performance within different categories of ICT companies. The population included active Hungarian ICT firms. The analysis used 100 samples, comprising micro-, small-, and medium-sized ICT corporations. Those samples were selected by random cluster sampling. This research used Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. This study supported the idea that inter-organizational trust improved innovation, and that innovation enhanced financial performance. As an expected finding, innovation could mediate a positive direction between inter-organizational trust and financial performance.

    Keywords: ICT companies; inter-organizational trust; innovation; financial performance

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/17/9947

     

  • Is a CSR Policy an Equally Effective Vaccine Against Workplace Mobbing and Psychosocial Stressors?

    Sroka W.,  Vveinhardt J., (2020). Is a CSR Policy an Equally Effective Vaccine Against Workplace Mobbing and Psychosocial Stressors?, International journal of environmental research and public health. 17(19), 7292 DOI:10.3390/ijerph17197292

    Abstract:
    In this study, the problem question was raised whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) is/can be an effective tool against workplace mobbing and psychosocial stressors in organizations. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of workplace mobbing in Lithuanian and Polish organizations in order to compare in which organizations the manifestation of the phenomenon is the strongest and analyzing psychosocial stressors in parallel. To achieve the purpose, 823 employees of three types of organizations were surveyed. The respondents belonged to organizations that implement the principles of corporate social responsibility, organizations that intend to become socially responsible and organizations that do not implement corporate social responsibility and do not seek to become socially responsible. The empirical study was conducted using the questionnaire “Mobbing as a Psychosocial Stressor in the Organizations Accessing and Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility—MOB-CSR”. This questionnaire is valid and reliable; the correlation relationships between subscales show interconnectedness and statistically reliable relationships. The research results were calculated using the chi-squared test and the linear regression model. Statistically reliable relationships were found between the prevalence of workplace mobbing, psychosocial work stressors and corporate social responsibility. The results of the study show that along with the weakening of variables of corporate social responsibility, the probability of workplace mobbing is increasing but CSR in itself does not ensure the prevention of workplace mobbing in the case of Lithuanian and Polish organizations. If the findings of the study are considered by the managers of organizations, this can affect both employees’ quality of life towards improvement and more transparent/purposeful implementation of corporate social responsibility, i.e., responding to the true meaning of CSR.

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; workplace mobbing; psychosocial stressors; Lithuania; Poland 

    Full-text: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/19/7292

     

  • IT System Functioning in the Polish Police as a System Supporting Management Processes

    by Arkadiusz Letkiewicz, Krystian Maczka

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyze the information systems used in the Polish police in the context of the possibility of using them in supporting of management processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research used the method of functional comparative analysis. The functions of the IT systems used in the Polish police were examined and mapped onto main functions of management information systems indicated in the literature. Findings: The article identifies the main functions of information management systems, and then compares the three main IT systems currently used in the Polish police with the functions they should have based on the literature. The systems used in the Polish police support the management staff only in selected areas. These systems still need the implementation of many functions, in particular those supporting the prediction of future phenomena, forecasting trends, as well as functions supporting the planning of professional development of employees. Practical Implications: The conclusions from the research should serve as a recommendation for the direction of the development of information systems used in the Polish police. Originality/Value: The presented research is unique in terms of analyzing the possibilities of using the systems used in the Polish police for human resource management, increasing work efficiency and effectiveness and for supporting the management staff.

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  • Leadership Competencies in Making Industry 4.0 Effective: The Case of Polish Heat and Power Industry

    Anna Kwiotkowska, Bożena Gajdzik, Radosław Wolniak, Jolita Vveinhardt, Magdalena Gębczyńska (2021), Leadership competencies in the organizations under conditions of Industry 4.0 - the Polish perspective. Energies https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144338

    Abstract:
    Leadership competencies are of crucial importance in every organisation as to a large extent they determine its success. This is especially evident in the time of Industry 4.0. Given this fact, the aim of our paper is to examine the relationship between leadership competencies and 4.0 leadership effectiveness. The heat and power plants industry was chosen as the subject of our research. The fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA) was used as the research method. It enabled us not only to analyse particular variables, competences, and typical statistical relations between them, but we also revealed the patterns of causal relationships between particular variables. The key finding of our research was the juxtaposition of leadership competencies that are indispensable for 4.0 leaders in the CHP plants. We also found out that managerial competencies were not sufficient, and they should be supported by intellectual or socio-emotional ones.

    Keywords: Industry 4.0; heat and power plants; energy production; managerial competencies; leadership effectiveness; fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA)

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/14/4338

  • Main Problems of Railway Cross-Border Transport Between Poland, Germany and Czech Republic

    Gamon Wojciech, Naranjo Gómez José Manuel, Main Problems of Railway Cross-Border Transport Between Poland, Germany and Czech Republic, Sustainability, 2019 11 (18): 4900; DOI: 10.3390/su11184900

    Abstract:
    Railway cross-border transport is a special case of railway transport, which, due to the necessity of crossing the state border, raises many difficulties. They result from factors, among which the most important are other power systems, control systems, a variety of regulations regarding traffic management or even problems with communication, resulting from the different languages. These difficulties involve a number of consequences for the fluency and efficiency of transportation, but more importantly, have negative effects on safety. The article describes the main problems of cross-border transport on the example of Poland and two neighbouring countries (Germany and Czech Republic), which are also members of the European Union. For this purpose, in cooperation with the Polish railway undertakings, an analysis was carried out of processes conducted by these in the field of cross-border transport and identifies the main problems in this area. As part of the conducted research, potential solutions and improvements were also proposed. The article focuses solely on the issues of crossing the border and manoeuvring operations at stations close to the German and Czech borders, inasmuch as these processes constitute the largest area of activity of Polish railway undertakings within the framework of rail cross-border transport.

    Keywords: railway; cross-border; transport

    Full text: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335692890_Main_Problems_of_Railway_CrossBorder_Transport_Between_Poland_Germany_and_Czech_Republic

  • Marketing mix of cultural institutions on the cross-border market of a city divided by a border – an analysis and evaluation. Polish Journal of Management Studies

    Wróblewski Ł., Lis M. (2021). Marketing mix of cultural institutions on the cross-border market of a city divided by a border – an analysis and evaluation. Polish Journal of Management Studies

    Abstract
    The paper has an investigative nature. Based on interviews conducted using the CATI technique with 1035 inhabitants of the city divided by a border: Cieszyn (555 respondents) and Český Těńín (480 individuals), an investigation was performed on how the activities of cultural institutions related to marketing mix are perceived by the recipients of the cultural offer available in Cieszyn-Český Těńín, the city divided by a border. The performed research proves that the marketing instruments of cultural institutions located both on the Polish, as well as on the Czech side of the city of Cieszyn-Český Těńín, have been evaluated positively by its inhabitants. Therefore, it can be assumed that instruments used so far by these entities can be applicable to the process of shaping long-term relations with the recipients of the cultural offer, located on both sides of the border.

    Keywords: cross-border market, town divided by a border, Cieszyn-Český Těńín, cultural institutions, marketing mix.

    Full text: https://pjms.zim.pcz.pl/resources/html/article/details?id=217386

  • Mathematical Model of the MRP Method in the Structure of a Reference Model of Enterprise Process Control Systems

    Mirosław Zaborowski, Mathematical Model of the MRP Method in the Structure of a Reference Model of Enterprise Process Control Systems; Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019, Madrid, Spain.

    Abstract:
    The purpose of the work is to give a representative example of adequacy of the information-decision model of enterprise process control (EntPC) systems as the reference model of integrated proces management and direct control systems. This model, in the form of UML class diagrams, has been proposed by the author in his previous publications. The first reason to begin a research work for creating it was a need of such a model in which one can test various alternative decision making algorithms without changing the structure of an enterprise management system as a whole. As the example the MRP algorithm, which is a core element of all ERP systems, is chosen. The study presents a mathematical model and algorithm of the MRP method, as well as an example of MRP calculations. The model is shown in the form of difference equations representing the dynamics of material flow. It was developed by the author on the basis of a detailed verbal description given by Orlicky J. in his well-known monograph. It was shown that the product structure graph and the bill of material file from the MRP method correspond in the EntPC reference model to the structure of business processes performed in a manufacturing plant. Furthermore, variable attributes of planned orders, e.g. gross requirements, planned order quantities, planned order releases, have been presented as attributes of business activities instances, which are objects of classes belonging to the EntPC reference model.

    Keywords: integrated management systems, self-controlling business processes, reference models, material requirements planning

     

  • Metropolitan Electricity Purchasing Group - case study

    Mucha-Kuś K., „Metropolitan Electricity Purchasing Group - case study”; Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019

    Abstract:
    The article is of research nature. The purpose of the work is to identify coopetition in Metropolitan Electricity Purchasing Group run by GZM Metropolis, Poland, as well as to define its types. An indepth analysis of case study allowed to achieve the aim and list the benefits of coopetition additionally. Based on the application of this method, the following conclusions were obtained:
    1) there is coopetition in Metropolitan Electricity Purchasing Group which is: horizontal - occurring between competitors on the market, deliberate - aware and formalized, network - more than two participants involved and complex – referring to more than one link in the value chain,
    2) unanimity among coopetitors is crucial for project success. The recommendations may be useful not only for the purchasing groups but also for decision-makers of other coopetitive projects.

    Keywords: coopetition, purchasing group, metropolis

  • Mobbing and Corporate Social Responsibility: Does the status of the organization ruarantee employee wellbeing and intentions to stay in the job?

    Vveinhardt, J., Sroka W., (2020). Mobbing and Corporate [MS1] Social Responsibility: Does the status of the organization ruarantee employee wellbeing and intentions to stay in the job?. Oeconomia Copernicana 11(4):743–778, DOI: 10.24136/oc.2020.030

    Abstract:
    Research background: In spite of abundant evidence that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) contributes to improving the emotional state of employees as stakeholders and can serve as a useful tool for reduction of their turnover in organizations, until now, it remains unclear how the different status of CSR is related to consequences accompanying mobbing. Purpose of the article: This study compares the emotional state and intentions of Polish and Lithuanian organizations? employees who have experienced mobbing with regard to the status of CSR. The paper presents part of the results of a wider study conducted in two neighbouring states, which are exclusively related to the employees? emotional state and employee intentions after experiencing mobbing in the workplace. Methods: The research sample involved 823 respondents employed in Lithuania and Poland. The questionnaire survey was conducted using the questionnaire ?Mobbing as a Psychosocial Stressor in the Organizations Accessing and Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility ? MOB-CSR?. Comparisons are made with regard to and CSR and relate to Lithuania (LT) and Poland (PL), when organisations are divided into three groups: (I) Is CSR; (II) Seeks to be-come CSR and (III) Does not seek to become CSR. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used as the research methods. Findings & Value added: CSR is related to employees? better emotional state and lesser intentions to leave the organisation, but the study revealed unexpected results showing that according to certain parameters, the situation in the organisations seeking CSR was better than in those already declaring this status (e.g. the feeling of hopelessness, reluctance to seek better results, etc.). It is discussed why the results between countries that have similar historical experience and are culturally close differ. The conclusions emphasize the necessity for practitioners and researchers to evaluate the impact of change on employees? emotional state and intentions at different stages of CSR implementation more carefully. Besides, the results revealed a significant impact of the different status of enterprises with regard to CSR on employees? emotional state and intentions to stay in the job. This article contributes to the literature analysing organizational management by filling gaps in empirical research on CSR, mobbing, employees? emotional state and intentions in different cultures.

    Keywords: workplace mobbing; employees’ emotional state; employee intentions; CSR; Poland & Lithuania

    Full text: https://bit.ly/35ierIc

     

  • Modeling the Dynamic Linkage between Tourism Development, Technological Innovation, Urbanization and Environmental Quality: Provincial Data Analysis of China

    Chenghu, Z.; Arif, M.;Shehzad, K.; Ahmad, M.; Oláh, J. Modeling the Dynamic Linkage between Tourism Development, Technological Innovation, Urbanization and Environmental Quality: Provincial Data Analysis of China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8456. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168456

    Abstract:  
    This study investigates the linkage between tourism development, technological innovation, urbanization and environmental degradation across 30 provinces of China. Based on data from 2001 to 2018, the study used an advanced economic methodology for the long-run estimate, the Augmented Mean Group (AMG) estimator, which accounts for heterogeneity in slope parameters and dependencies across countries. The empirical results show that tourism development degrades environmental quality, while technological innovation mitigates carbon emissions. Further, findings show that urbanization increases carbon emissions, while an inverted U-shaped relationship exists between economic growth and environmental degradation, implying the existence of EKC in China. Further, the Dumitrescu–Hurlin panel causality test shows that any policy aimed at tourism development or technological innovation would substantially contribute to environmental degradation, but not the other way round.

    Keywords: CO2 emission; GDP; GDP square; tourism development; technological innovation; urbanization

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/16/8456/htm

  • Modeling the mediating roles of self-directed learning and knowledge management processes between emotional intelligence and learning outcomes in higher education

    Shafait Z, Khan MA, Bilan Y, Oláh J (2021) Modeling the mediating roles of self-directed learning and knowledge management processes between emotional intelligence and learning outcomes in higher education. PLoS ONE 16(7): e0255177. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0255177

    Abstract:
    Objective: Drawing on the knowledge-based view and ability-based theories of emotional intelligence (EI), in this study, we investigate the effects of EI on learning outcomes related to academics and administrators in Chinese research universities and we also test the direct association between learning outcomes and creative performance. In addition, we examine the mediating role of self-directed learning (SDL) and knowledge management processes (KMPs) on the relationship between EI and learning outcomes. Methods: The sample, for this study, consisted of 547 academic and administrative personnel at Chinese higher educational institutions (HEIs), and the hypothesized associations were examined through partial least squares structural equation modeling. Results: Our results indicated that EI has no significant influence on learning outcomes. However, an indirect relationship between EI and learning outcomes is established through SDL and KMPs. Conclusions: This study
    strengthens the professional understanding of EI and supports that the personnel at HEIs should value SDL and KMPs, which in turn enhances their learning outcomes. Although EI has received increased importance in higher education institutions, there are few studies that have investigated the relationship of EI, SDL, KMP, and learning outcomes. This is one of the initial studies that has empirically examined the interface of EI and learning outcomes in HEIs and also provides timely insights into the understanding of the mediating role of SDL and KMP.

    Full text: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255177

  • Modern Trends of Customs Administrations Formation Best European Practices and a Unified Structure

    Nestor S., Melnyk O., Adamiv M., Sroka W., (2020). Modern Trends of Customs Administrations Formation Best European Practices and a Unified Structure. NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy XIII. 189-211 DOI: 10.2478/nispa-2020-0008

    Abstract:
    The ambiguous trends in international trade in 2019 and the forecast for 2020 enhance the functional role of the customs bodies in every country. That is because the customs system largely determines the ease of conducting international trade, the security of international supply chains and economic development of the countries. Though many developed countries have been able to form progressive customs systems, there are still countries that are in the process of reforming customs administrations and require a unified conceptual approach to build their customs systems. Given this fact the goal of our study is to analyze current trends in the development of the international customs systems and on the basis of it to identify the main and support functions of customs administration. Based on the principle of the best practices, the countries with the best customs administrations according to WTO data, i.e. France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania and Poland were selected for analysis. We analyzed the positions of these countries in the leading international rankings, the key quantitative indicators of their customs activity and the peculiarities of the organizational construction of the customs authorities by functional principle. As the result, based on the use of systematic, dynamic and topologically substantive approaches and results of research, we developed a unified conceptual structure of the customs administration. In particular, the main functions (i.e. control, security and fiscal) and support functions (i.e. regulatory, administration, communication, service, information and statistical subsystems, resource support subsystem and international cooperation) were proposed. The proposed structure is intended to be used by representatives of the customs authorities in different countries throughout the world.

    Keywords: Customs administrations; globalization and integration trends; customs functions; customs and trade environment; unified functional structure

    Full text: https://content.sciendo.com/configurable/contentpage/journals$002fnispa$002f13$002f1$002farticle-p189.xml?tab_body=pdf-79549

     

  • Narcissistic Leadership, Employee Silence, and Organizational Cynicism: A Study of Physicians in Egyptian Public Hospitals

    Mohamed Mousa , Hala a Abdelgaffar, Mohammed Aboramadan,  Walid Chaouali, Narcissistic Leadership, Employee Silence, and Organizational Cynicism: A Study of Physicians in Egyptian Public Hospitals, International Journal of Public Administration,

    Abstract:
    This paper focuses on physicians in four public hospitals located in Egypt to explore the effect of narcissistic leadership on cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism dimensions with and without the mediating effect of physician silence.The authors employed a convenience sampling in which every physician was handed a questionnaire form to fill. This targeted a decrease in the likelihood of research bias. In total, the authors distributed 320 forms and collected 229 completed questionnaires forms. The structural equation was employed to determine the effect of narcissistic leadership on physicians’ organizational cynicism dimensions (cognitive, affective and behavioral). The same equation was later employed to assess the mediating role of the physicians’ silence on the aforementioned relationship. The authors found that narcissistic leadership has a positive effect on physicians’ silence. Moreover, physicians’ perceptions of the narcissism of their leaders stimulate their cynicism behavior and negative feelings towards these narcissists. Lastly, the authors discovered a significant role for physicians’ silence in mediating the relationship between narcissistic leadership and physicians’ cognitive, affective and behavioral cynicism.

    Keywords: Narcissistic leadership, employee silence, organizational cynicism, physicians, Egypt

    Full text: https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2020.1758719

  • Nepotism and Favouritism in Polish and Lithuanian Organizations: The Context of Organisational Microclimate

    Vveinhardt, J., Sroka W., (2020). Nepotism and Favouritism in Polish and Lithuanian Organizations: The Context of Organisational Microclimate. Sustainability. 12. DOI: 10.3390/su12041425

    Abstract:
    The phenomena of ‘nepotism’ and ‘favouritism’ are frequently observed in contemporary business, being usually associated with corruption in the public sector and the abuse of public resources. The phenomena, however, have an international scale and no country and sector of the economy are free of them. Given these facts, our paper identifies the attitude of Lithuanian and Polish employees to it in the context of revealing the organizational microclimate. Our analysis is done in relation to three basic aspects: a) Sector (public vs. private), b) gender (male vs. female) and c) five different age groups. Our research sample involved 337 respondents (Poland-PL, N = 164 and Lithuania-LT, N = 173) representing public (PL and LT, N = 119) and private (PL and LT, N = 218) sector organizations. A closed-type questionnaire was used in the survey. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by its high psychometric characteristics. Several research methods, including factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman–Brown, factor loading and total item correlation were used in our study. The results show that there are both similarities as well as differences between the organizations analysed. As far as the private vs. public sector is concerned, in Poland, manifestation of nepotism in principal does not differ in private and public organizations, unlike in Lithuanian organizations, where a worse situation is recorded in public sector organizations. In turn, comparing employees’ attitudes by their gender, it was identified that there were more similarities than differences between Poland and Lithuania in four subcategories. Finally, comparing employees’ attitudes by their age, it was identified that the least number of statistically significant differences was identified in two age groups: 18–24 years old and over 51.

    Keywords: nepotism; favouritism; organizational microclimate; public and private sector; Poland; Lithuania

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/4/1425/htm

  • Network interactions of global supply chain members

    by Le Thi Diem Chau, Oláh Judit, Pakurár Miklós

    Abstract:

    Supply chain structure of global enterprises tend to develop dramatically. These lead to more difficulty for enterprises in managing and building information sharing systems. Thus, it is a necessary for enterprises to limit the scope of the information sharing system by selecting essential partners. The aims of this study are to quantify the cooperation of each supply chain member, and evaluate and visualize their effects in information sharing systems in order to support policymakers in making their decisions in supply chain management. The network analytical method in network science is applied to indicate the relationship between supply chain members and present a comprehensive supply chain visually. Moreover, Motor Corporation’s topology in Japan is used as a representation of global enterprise features to analyze the relationships between supply chain members. The data for Motor Corporation is secondary data which includes the number of suppliers, manufacturers, and dealers, and the interaction among them. Data is collected and verified from reputable websites such as www.marklines.com, or www.statista.com. As a result, this study contributes by applying a new method for not only determining the impact levels of supply chain members but also giving visual descriptions of impact levels on the large-scale information sharing system.

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  • Organizational learning, organizational resilience and the mediating role of multi-stakeholder networks: A study of Egyptian academics.

    Mousa M., Abdelgaffar H.,  Chaouali W., Aboramadan M. (2020). Organizational learning, organizational resilience and the mediating role of multi-stakeholder networks: A study of Egyptian academics. Journal of Workplace Learning. ahead-of-print. DOI: 10.1108/JWL-05-2019-0057.

    Abstract:
    This paper aims to focus on academics in three private foreign universities located in Cairo (Egypt) to explore the influence of organizational learning (OL) on the level of organizational resilience of academics with and without the mediating effect of a multi-stakeholder network. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a comprehensive count sampling in which every academic was handed a questionnaire form to fill. This led to a decrease in the likelihood of research bias. In total, the authors distributed 960 questionnaire forms and collected 576 completed questionnaires, which is almost more than 60% of the total population. The authors used structural equation to determine the effect of OL on academics’ level of organizational resilience. The same equation was later used to assess the mediating role of the multi-stakeholder network on the aforementioned relationship. Findings The findings highlight a statistically significant influence of OL on academics’ level of organizational resilience. Moreover, the results revealed the significant role of the multi-stakeholder network in mediating the relationship between OL and organizational resilience. Originality/value This paper contributes by filling a gap in human resource management and organization literature in the higher education sector, in which empirical studies on the relationship between OL, multi-stakeholder networks and organizational resilience have been limited until now.

    Keywords: Academics, Organisational resilience, Organisational learning,Multi-stakeholders network, Egypt

    Full text: https://bit.ly/357Unsa

     

  • Problematic Internet Use among youths

    Tomczyk Ł, Stošić L., [MS1] Szyszka M., (2020). Problematic Internet Use among youths, Education Sciences 10(6):161, DOI: 10.3390/educsci10060161

    Abstract:
    Problematic Internet Use (PIU) has of late come to the major attention of researchers of risky behaviours. For parents and teachers in turn, the various pathological forms of Internet use have become more and more noticeable. In recent years, the operationalisation of the term PIU has also been discussed and attempts to measure its various phenomena have been made. In our study, we used the quantitative method-a diagnostic survey designed on the basis of a tool of the Supreme Audit Office and Scientific and Academic Computer Network (Naukowa i Akademicka Sieć Kompureowa NASK), The survey was conducted in the first half of 2017 in Poland, among 3569 adolescents (median 16, SD = 1.28). The purpose of the research was to investigate the scale of PIU among Polish youths. For most young people, PIU is a major social problem. The majority also declare that more than half of their friends have problems with using electronic media (smartphones and the Internet in particular). On the basis of the data collected, it is estimated that 60% of adolescents use media in a functional way, whereas 40% of young electronic media users show visible PIU symptoms, of which 5% do so at a destructive level (all symptoms). Gender does not co-occur with PIU; however, family structure (where both parents are present), the setting of rules for the use of electronic media, and the place of residence are all protective factors. There is a need for constantly improved tools for measuring PIU, as well as preventive programs focused on developing self-control and helping young people understand their own emotions.

    Keywords: PIU; problematic internet use; pathological internet use; internet addiction; IAD; Poland; youths; adolescent

    Full text: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342173936_Problematic_Internet_Use_among_Youths

     

  • Quantification of the process improvement exigency related to Industry 4.0

    by  Ján Závadský, Zuzana Závadská and Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to develop the I4 necessity index for quantification of process improvement exigency related to I4. Design/Methodology/Approach: Based on literature review and previous research, we decided to develop a new I4N index. This index is not intended to identify the current state of Industry 4.0 or the company's readiness for this concept, but to assess the need to implement I4. By implementing I4 we mean mostly the deployment of intelligent technologies, informatization and automation of business processes. Our philosophy is to develop a simple design for a minimum number of factors that may give rise to an internal or external need to implement I4. The secondary output of the I4N index is the quantification of the level of process improvement potential related to the selected production and logistic processes. Findings: We emphasize, it as a demand or more specifically, an exigency, rather than a readiness for Industry 4.0. We developed an Industry 4.0 necessity index (I4N index). We assigned weights to individual factors in order to quantify the process improvement exigency related to I4 and we used the list of manufacturing and logistic processes from previous research. We did not apply the list of intelligent technologies, although most indexes of the I4 readiness also take these technologies into account. Practical Implications: The basic approach of our research was to create a mathematical model that could easily quantify the potential for improving business processes related to Industry 4.0.

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  • Readiness of Polish Industrial Enterprises for the Industry 4.0 Revolution

    Marcin Lis, Bartosz Jeżyna, Ewa Szkudlarek, Szymon Szumiał Readiness of Polish industrial enterprises for the Industry 4.0 revolution, MDPI, https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060214

    Abstract:
    Implementing solutions related to Industry 4.0 is a challenge for Polish industrial enterprises, regardless of size or affiliation to a larger, international organisation. The aim of this article is to examine the awareness, readiness and ability of these enterprises to meet this challenge. This study was conducted on a group of 60 randomly selected representatives of companies operating in Poland. A structured interview consisting of 32 questions, carried out using the English computer-assisted web interview (CAWI) method, was used to collect the data. Statistical differences between companies employing up to 249 people and companies employing at least 250 people were verified by the use of the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Latent variables were also extracted, and the comparison was conducted using the independent samples from a Student’s t-test. Regardless of the differences in responses between companies employing up to 249 employees and those employing 250 or more, the results showed an insufficient level of knowledge of technological solutions as well as a lack of awareness about supporting business development by means of specialised technology providers. Even though little awareness of the importance of Industry 4.0 solutions was identified, identifying key determinants for raising awareness of these solutions among companies operating in Poland may become not only the basis of further scientific research but also of a vital catalogue of activities that can be used to disseminate knowledge in this area. Both paths are extremely important for Polish enterprises. Practical implementation of Industry 4.0 measures particularly entails additional support for small and medium-sized enterprises (hereinafter SME) investment in technological, financial and human resources.

    Keywords: Polish industrial enterprises; Industry 4.0; digitalisation; automatisation; IoT; 3D printing; Industry 4.0 readiness

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0760/10/6/214/htm

  • Resource Intensity vs. Investment in Production Installations—The Case of the Steel Industry in Poland

    Gajdzik Bożena; Sroka Włodzimierz. (2021). Resource Intensity vs. Investment in Production Installations—The Case of the Steel Industry in Poland. Energies 14, no. 2: 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14020443

    Abstract:
    Resource intensity is a measure of the resources needed for the production, processing and disposal of good or services. Its level decides on the costs the companies have to bear both for production and for environmental protection, which in turn have a crucial importance for their competitiveness. Given these facts, our study analyses the issues of resource intensity in the Polish steel industry in correlation to investments made, and more specifically, to the impact of investments on the consumption of energy media used during steel production. Its key element is the development of econometric models presenting the impact of investments on resource consumption in steel production in Poland. Electricity and coke consumption were analysed according to manufacturing installation. The research was carried out on the basis of statistical data for the period of 2004–2018. The obtained findings confirmed the impact of the increase in investment on the decrease in the resource intensity in steel production in Poland. These facts have implications for both policy makers, as they confirm the thesis on a direct correlation between investments in technology and a reduction in resource intensity (environmental protection), as well as company managers. In the case of the latter, the data show the actions which companies should focus on in their activities.

    Keywords: resource intensity; investment; steel industry; Poland

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/2/443/htm

  • Responsible Management Education in Time of Crisis: A Conceptual Framework for Public Business Schools in Egypt and Similar Middle Eastern Context

    Mohamed Mousa, Hiba Massoud & Rami Ayoubi. Responsible Management Education in Time of Crisis: A Conceptual Framework for Public Business Schools in Egypt and Similar Middle Eastern Context. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-021-00532-6

    Abstract:
    Recent studies show that the adoption of RME scenarios is still a matter of concern for non-western countries ((Mousa et al., Journal of Management Development 38:681–696, 2019), 2021a, 2021b). In this paper, we theoretically propose the potential direction of RME scenarios that business schools in Egypt and other similar cultural context to implement through articulating the main antecedents of RME before and after Covid-19. we used the method of multilevel research by combining different theoretical approaches. As an outcome of our analysis, we developed five propositions which form the main antecedents of RME in Egypt and similar regional Middle East business schools before and after Covid-19.

    Keywords: Responsible management education, Institutional theory, Stakeholder theory, Covid-19, Egypt, Middle East

    Full text: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11115-021-00532-6

  • Responsible management education (RME) post COVID-19: what must change in public business schools?

    Mohamed Mousa (2021). Responsible management education (RME) post COVID-19: what must change in public business schools? X-MOL, Journal of Management Development. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-10-2020-0316

    Abstract:
    Purpose – Through a multiple case study design, this article elaborates the chances of initiating and/or implementing responsible management education (RME) in Egyptian public business schools after the identification of COVID-19. In other words, this paper identifies the effect of COVID-19 on internalizing RME in the previously mentioned context. Design/methodology/approach – This is a qualitative study. The author focused on academics who work in four out of the 25 business schools in Egypt and employed a multiple-case study design (to collect his data. Findings – The results showed that COVID-19 has not had any effect on the adoption of sustainable business education in the sample institutions. Moreover, some respondents went further and indicated that the identification of coronavirus slows down any attempt to implement RME in Egyptian public business schools. Accordingly, the author thinks that the sample business schools can implement RME post-COVID-19 if they overcome the following three types of obstacles: self-determination, contextual and national obstacles. Originality/value – This paper contributes by filling a gap in RME, leadership and literature in the higher education sector, in which empirical studies on the effect of COVID-19 on the performance of business school have been limited until now.

    Keywords: Responsible management education, Institutional theory, Stakeholder theory, COVID-19, Business schools, Egypt

    Full text: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-10-2020-0316

  • Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate and Its Components for Onshore Wind Farms at the Feasibility Stage

    by Piotr W. Saługa ,Krzysztof Zamasz, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna, Marcin Malec

    Abstract: 
    The concept of risk is well known in the energy sector. It is normally recognized when it comes to price and cost forecasting, annual production calculation, or evaluating project lifetime. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that the quantitative evaluation of risk is usually difficult. The discount rate is the only parameter reflecting risk in the discounted cash flow analysis. Therefore, knowledge of the discount rate along with the major components affecting its level is of fundamental significance for making investment decisions, capital budgeting, and project management. By referring to the standard coal-fired power generation projects the authors of the paper tackle the analysis of the composition of discount rate for onshore wind farm technologies in the Polish conditions. The study was carried out on the basis of a typical (hypothetical) onshore wind farm project assessed at the feasibility stage. To enable comparisons and discussions, it was assumed that the best reference point for such purposes is the real risk-adjusted discount rate, RADR, after-tax, in all equity evaluations (the ‘bare bones’ assumption); that is because such a rate reflects the inherent characteristics of the project risk. The study methodology involves the a priori application of the discount rate level and subsequently—in an analytical way—calculation of its individual components. The starting point for the analysis of the RADR’s composition was the definition of risk, understood as the product of uncertainty and consequences. Then, the risk factors were adopted and level of uncertainty assessed. Subsequently, using the classical sensitivity analysis of IRR, the consequences (as slopes of sensitivity lines) were calculated. Consequently, risk portions in percentage forms were received. Eventually, relative risks and risk components within cost of equity were assessed. Apart from the characteristics of the discount rate at the feasibility stage, in the discussion section the study was supplemented with an analogous analysis of the project’s cost of equity at the operating stage.

    Keywords: onshore wind; risk assessment; cash-flows; discount rate; cost of capital; cost of equity

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  • Supplying Energy to Vulnerable Segments of the Population: Macro-Financial Risks and Public Welfare

    Elena Smirnova, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna, Saltanat Yessetova, Vadim Samusenkov, Rodion Rogulin. Energies 2021, 14(7), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14071834

    Abstract:
    The purpose of the study is to assess the level of energy supply to the population of the Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asian (EECCA) countries, taking into account their financial risk and energy efficiency for households as potential socially vulnerable consumers. The research methodology is based on three approaches to determining the energy poverty of the population, as well as the integral index of energy supply to socially vulnerable segments of the population. Based on the results of the three approaches to assessing the level of energy supply to the population of EECCA countries, it has been revealed that its critical indicators are found in Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine. The multivariate analysis of variance has revealed that, in all EECCA countries, both financial risk and energy efficiency levels have a significant impact. In Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia, financial risk has the greatest impact on the level of energy supply to socially vulnerable segments of the population, while in other EECCA countries the energy efficiency factor has the strongest impact. In a number of EECCA countries, households have poor energy supply and require efficient and reliable operation, the introduction of energy-efficient technologies for home maintenance, and the improvement of related programs. The novelty of this study lies in the proposed methodological approach to assessing the supply of energy resources to socially unprotected segments of the population, which makes it possible to determine the impact of financial risk and energy efficiency in EECCA countries.

    Keywords: analysis of variance; energy efficiency; energy poverty; energy supply; financial risk; household; tax

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/7/1834/htm

  • Sovereign Credit Ratings And Asian Financial Markets

    Pervaiz K., Virglerova Z., Khan M.A., Akbar U., Popp J[MS1] ., (2020). Sovereign Credit Ratings And Asian Financial Markets

    Abstract:
    Each region/country seeks to become more efficient to gain the confidence of potential investors. Most of the Asian economies are categorized as emerging markets, where the role of financial markets has even become more intensified to provide financial services to increasing economic and financial activities. Asian financial market has momentously suffered during the Asian, and global financial crisis. The mass destruction was mainly caused due to the mounting uncertainty, which spillover throughout the region, where investors lost their confidence. Considering the pivotal economic role of financial markets, and implications evolve due to sovereign credit rating announcements, this study aims to model the role of sovereign credit rating announcements by Standard and Poor’s, and Moody’s on financial market development of the Asian region. For 24 Asian countries/regions, we perform a regression analysis on sovereign credit rating changes based on financial market development index and its factors. The findings of Driscoll Kraay’s robust estimator reveals that improvement in sovereign credit rating score enhances the financial market development in the region. Moreover, we applied several robustness checks, such as alternative estimators, alternative measures, and three sub-dimensions of financial market development. According to the findings from these robustness checks, the positive impact of sovereign credit ratings on financial market development in the region is robust. Unlike prior literature (which is confined to the event study approach), this study utilizes the historical grades to establish the relationship under the standard error clustering approach. Due to the diversity of investors’ speculations, we propose a micro-level extension of the present model to overcome a difference in country policy.

    Keywords: Sovereign credit ratings, financial market development, panel data models, Standard and Poor’s, Moody’s, Asia.

    Full text: https://doi.org/10.15240/tul/001/2021-1-011

  • Sustainable development goals and SMEs decisions: Czech Republic vs. Poland

    Dr  Jarmila Šebestová, Dr Włodzimierz Sroka, Sustainable development goals and SMEs decisions: Czech Republic vs. Poland, Journaf of Eastern European and Cerntral Asian Research, Vol 7, No I (2020) DOI: https://doi.org/10.15549/jeecar.v7i1.418

    Abstract:
    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are a “major engine” of economic growth and socioeconomic development, and reaching many sustainable development goals (SDG). They should make the SDGs a prominent selling point to demonstrate why consumers should buy from them to reduce waste and enhance recycling. If a consumer sees an SME engaged in the SDGs (goal 8,9 and 12), it will be motivated for further support. Given these facts the paper compares Czech and Polish approaches to the circular economy by quantitative evaluation based on primary research (Czechia, 210 respondents) and qualitative context comparison in Poland. Our research has confirmed that there are differences in both countries in relation to the sustainable development goals, with SMEs decisions in the Czech SMEs sector being on level business sustainability 1.0, and that in Poland being below 1. Additionally, Czech entrepreneurs have more knowledge and practice in “green” methods than do Poland’s.

    Keywords: circular economy, recycling, sustainable business, waste management

    Full text: https://www.ieeca.org/journal/index.php/JEECAR/article/view/418

  • The CSR perception of front-line employees of luxury fashion businesses

    MacGregor, K.R., Sroka, W., MacGregor Pelikánová, R. (2020), The CSR perception of front-line employees of luxury fashion businesses, Organizacija, 53(3) 198-211. DOI: 10.2478/orga-2020-0013

    Abstract:
    Background and Purpose: The sustainability projected into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is pivotal for luxury fashion businesses and they heavily refer to it. However, do their front-line employees follow this trend? To achieve an effective and efficient CSR, the front-line employees have to share the CSR perception advanced by their businesses. The main objective of the study is to discover, critically assess and compare the CSR perception of the front-line employees of the top luxury fashion industry businesses located in Prague, Czech Republic. Design/Methodology/Approach: An investigative case study of the CSR approach of such employees of all ten top luxury fashion businesses in Prague is performed while using a holistic Meta-Analysis, a manual Delphi method and three rounds of interviews, along with mystery shopping techniques. Results: The heterogenous conglomerate of data reveals: (i) problematic awareness of these employees, (ii) their ignorance of the legal setting, (iii) an imbalance and preferential focus, along with ignorance of certain CSR categories, (iv) direct and indirect contradictions and (v) a preoccupation with the fur issue. Conclusions: This alarming inconsistencies and ambiguity have strong implications for both science and practice, they call for more studies, a deeper understanding of causes and a prompt correction in order to make the CSR perception of these important inside stakeholders be in line with expectations.

    Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR); EU law; Luxury fashion; Sustainability

    Full text: https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/orga/53/3/article-p198.xml?language=en&tab_body=pdf-79549


     

  • The effect of integrative trust and innovation on financial performance in a disruptive era

    Oláh J., Hidayat Y.A., Lakner Z., Kovács S., (2020)., The effect of integrative trust and innovation on financial performance in a disruptive era. Economics and Sociology, 13(4)

    Abstract:
    This study hopes to contribute to understanding how integrated trust and innovation affects financial performance. Our objectives can therefore be stated as follows. The first is to examine the influence of institutional trust on interpersonal trust and inter-organisational trust. Subsequently, the study investigates the effect of interpersonal trust on enhancing inter-organisational trust. The third purpose is to study the influence of inter-organisational trust on financial performance through innovation as a mediating variable. The study implemented 103 samples of ICT Companies in Hungary. The Partial Least Square (PLS) – Structural Equation Model verified the hypotheses in the research model. The results show that there appears to be a positive association between institutional trust and interpersonal trust. Institutional trust has a positive influence on interorganizational trust, thus interpersonal trust positively affects inter-organizational trust. This study also claims that the effects of inter-organizational trust and innovation are particularly prominent and noticeable, with significant consequences for financial performance. Here we present tests that showed that interpersonal trust performed a complementary role, but innovation failed as a mediating variable. The primary suggestion we make concerns strategies to manage interpersonal trust and a favorable sense of confidence within a company. The company should also assertively maintain trust in customers and suppliers.

    Keywords: Transaction Cost, Institutional Trust, Interpersonal Trust, Intra-organizational Trust, Innovation, Financial Performance, PLS-SEM, ICT Company, Hungary

    Full text: http://real.mtak.hu/117673/

  • The Level and Dynamics of Economic Development Versus Employment Structures in Economic Sectors and Sections in EU Countries

    Danuta Strahl, The Level and Dynamics of Economic Development Versus Employment Structures in Economic Sectors and Sections in EU Countries, Proceedings of the 35th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 1-2 April, 2019, Seville, Spain

    Abstract:
    The purpose of the paper is to assess the relationship between the level and dynamics of economic development expressed in GDP per capita, and the employment structure in clusters of EU states in 2008 and 2018. These clusters are formed on the basis of two criteria: the employment share in economic sectors (Agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining and quarrying; Manufacturing; Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; water supply and construction; Services) and the employment share in industry sections of various technological advancement, and in knowledgeintensive services. The clustering of countrie was obtained by complete linkage method. The average GDP per capita and GDP dynamics were compared between these clusters of countries. The procedure proposed in the paper made it possible to: identify clusters of EU states with similar employment structures in selected sectors and sections, and assess the relationship between the analysed structures and the level and dynamics of economic development.

    Keywords: Employment, Structures, Sectors, Sections, EU States, Level Of Development, Clustering

  • The Impact of Fleet Electrification on Carbon Emissions: A Case Study from Poland

    by  Krzysztof Zamasz, Jakub Stęchły,  Aleksandra Komorowska, Przemysław Kaszyński


    Abstract:
    Fleet electrification is one of the measures proposed for achieving climate neutrality in the coming years. The replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles with electric vehicles has a positive impact on carbon emission reduction in some countries. However, in countries highly dependent on fossil fuels, such a possibility requires examination with respect to the means of electricity generation and fuel mix used in their power systems. One such country is Poland, selected as an example of an economy strongly dependent on fossil fuels. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of fleet electrification of an individual company located in Poland on the reduction of carbon emissions. The concept and calculations are based on historical data on the single-year mileage and fuel consumption of 619 cars used by this company. Even though the Polish power system is based on fossil fuels, fleet electrification could contribute to a reduction in carbon emissions of 24%. The decrease in operational costs by EUR 370 thousand/year is also significant. Apart from environmental and economic impacts, this paper provides valuable findings on the difference between catalogue and real-driving data application in the various analyses. With respect to Polish fuel mix in 2019, the application of data published by car producers shows that fleet electrification would increase carbon emissions by 14% in this company. This means that depending on the initial assumptions, different conclusions can be drawn by policymakers, regulatory bodies, academics, or other groups of interest

    Keywords: electromobility; electric vehicle; carbon emissions; fleet electrification; sustainable mobility; sustainable development; fleet management; energy mix

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  • The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Financial Development: New Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    Majeed, A., Jiang, P., Ahmad, M., Khan, M. A., & Olah, J. (2021). The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Financial Development: New Evidence from Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis. Journal of Competitiveness, 13(1), 95–112. https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2021.01.06

    Abstract:
    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is seen as a prerequisite for gaining and maintaining competitiveness. Simultaneously, the relationship between FDI and financial development (FD) has important implications for the researched economy and its competitiveness. This domain has not been sufficiently investigated, with diverse and contradictory findings evident in the literature. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of FDI on FD for the selected 102 Belt and Road Initiative countries on four continents: Asia, Europe, Africa, and Latin America. Based on data from 1990 to 2017, a set of quantitative techniques, including feasible generalized least squares, and augmented mean group techniques, were used in this study. Our findings indicate that FDI, trade openness, government consumption, and inflation have a statistically significant relationship with FD. FDI, trade openness, and government consumption increased FD in Asia, Europe, and Latin America but decreased in Africa. Inflation shows a negative influence on FD in all continents. Furthermore, the Dumitrescu–Harlin panel causality test confirms a two-way causality relationship among FDI, trade openness, and FD in Asia and Europe. In contrast, a unidirectional relationship exists between FDI and FD in Latin America. The income-wise results reveal that low- and middle-income countries attract more FDI than high-income countries due to high factor costs. These empirical results provide new insights for policymakers, presenting several policy implications for FD competitiveness in the reference regions.

    Keywords: foreign direct investment, financial development, panel data, belt and road initiative

    Full text: https://www.cjournal.cz/files/397.pdf

  • THE IMPACT OF INTRADAY MOMENTUM ON STOCK RETURNS: EVIDENCE FROM S&P500 AND CSI300

    by Saddam Hossain, Beáta Gavurová, Xianghui Yuan,Morshadul Hasan, Judit Oláh

    Abstract:

    This paper analyzes the statistical impact of COVID-19 on the S&P500 and the CSI300 intraday momentum. This study employs an empirical method, that is, the intraday momentum method used in this research. Also, the predictability of timing conditional strategies is also used here to predict the intraday momentum of stock returns. In addition, this study aims to estimate and forecast the coefficients in the stock market pandemic crisis through a robust standard error approach. The empirical findings indicate that the intraday market behavior an unusual balanced; the volatility and trading volume imbalance and the return trends are losing overwhelmingly. The consequence is that the first half-hour return will forecast the last half-hour return of the S&P500, but during the pandemic shock, the last half-hour of both stock markets will not have a significant impact on intraday momentum. Additionally, market timing strategy analysis is a significant factor in the stock market because it shows the perfect trading time, decides investment opportunities and which stocks will perform well on this day. Besides, we also found that when the volatility and volume of the S&P500 are both at a high level, the first half-hour has been a positive impact, while at the low level, the CSI300 has a negative impact on the last half-hour. In addition, this shows that the optimistic effect and positive outlook of the stockholders for the S&P500 is in the first half-hours after weekend on Monday morning because market open during the weekend holiday, and the mentality of every stockholder’s indicate the positive impression of the stock market.

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  • The Relationship Between the Inhabitants of the City Divided by the Border with Polish and Czech Cultural Institutions in Context of Cultural Education

    by Łukasz Wróblewski and Marek Walancik

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the factors that affect the relationship between the inhabitants of the city divided by the border with Polish and Czech cultural institutions, in terms of cultural education. Design/Methodology/Approach: The survey was conducted using the CATI (Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview) technique in October and November 2019 on a randomly selected sample - 1035 inhabitants of Cieszyn (555 respondents from Poland) and Czech Cieszyn (480 people from the Czech side). The acquired data was subjected to factor analysis and SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) analysis. Findings: The results of the SEM analysis confirmed that the instruments identified by the authors had a positive (stimulating) effect on the tendency of the inhabitants of the city divided by the border to establish relations with Polish and Czech cultural institutions. The article proves that the activities of cultural institutions located both on the Polish and Czech sides of the city of Cieszyn - Czech Cieszyn, divided by the border, have a positive impact on establishing relationships between cultural entities and the inhabitants of the city divided by the border. Practical Implications: The analysed instruments can be used in the process of shaping long-term relationships with recipients of the cultural offer on both sides of the border. Originality/value: The article shows that the marketing instruments identified by the authors can also be used in the broadly understood process of cultural education.

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  • The Role of Globalization, Economic Growth and Natural Re-sources on the Ecological Footprint in Thailand: Evidence from Nonlinear Causal Estimations

    Hafezali Iqbal Hussain, Muhammad Haseeb, Fakarudin Kamarudin, Zdzisława Dacko-Pikiewicz and Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna. The Role of Globalization, Economic Growth and Natural Re-sources on the Ecological Footprint in Thailand: Evidence from Nonlinear Causal Estimations. Processes 2021. Special Issue : Circular Economy and Efficient Use of Resources (mdpi.com)

    Abstract: 
    The environmental issue has become a global problem that needs to be examined frequently, motivating researchers to investigate it. Thus, the present study has investigated the asymmetric impact of globalization, economic growth and natural resources on the ecological footprint in the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in Thailand. The study has used annual time series data from 1970 to 2018. The study applied a novel method of nonlinear autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL). In particular, the current study has investigated the effect of positive and negative shocks on the independent variable on the dependent variable. The findings have confirmed that the effect of globalization and natural resources are significant and nonlinear. However, the effect of negative shocks of globalization and natural resources is more dominant on the ecological footprint in Thailand than the positive shocks of both variables. Moreover, the present study has also tested the presence of EKC in Thailand, and the findings confirm the presence of an inverted U-shape curve in the Thailand economy.

    Keywords: Globalization; economic growth; natural resources; ecological footprint; environmental Kuznets curve; Thailand

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9717/9/7/1103/htm

  • The Usage of Modern Instruments of Business Planning Administration for Small Enterprises: A Case Study Analysis

    Nestor S., Naychuk-Khrushch M.B., Kohut U., Honchar  M., Sroka W., (2020).  The Usage of Modern Instruments of Business Planning Administration for Small Enterprises: A Case Study Analysis. Central European Business Review. 9. 20-42. DOI: 10.18267/j.cebr.227

    Abstract:
    Small and medium-sized enterprises are an important part of the economy of every country. These enterprises operate in a highly competitive environment and are especially exposed to rapid changes in the business environment. Therefore, one of the most important issues which they face is effective business planning (BP), especially in relation to the projects which they carry out. This is because business planning provides an opportunity to take the risks inherent in the activities of an enterprise into account and providing coordination of the production and economic processes. Given these facts, our study analyses the process of business planning administration in small enterprises. Its main aim is to develop methodological recommendations for the administration of business planning processes through the utilization of innovative tools. It should simplify the business planning of projects and make it more relevant and effective. The administration of business planning is presented as a complex process which is modelled with the utilization of a roadmapping approach. We suggest using the business canvas as one of the milestones of the model, which is especially suitable for the visualization of future business plans. A single case study analysis based on the private company Gal-Exim PC and its innovation project planning was chosen as the research method. The companys core business and main innovation projects are in sphere of commercial real estate operations. Our analysis confirmed that the proposed model may be regarded as an effective instrument of BP in small enterprises. It has a universal nature and therefore may be utilized in other companies as well. Implications for Central European audience: Our study is based on the most modern world trends and practical research in sphere of business planning. The proposed model has a universal nature and may be easily implemented in any European small or medium-sized companies. The proposed roadmap of business planning administration includes instruments which are accessible and may be used by companies regardless of the region. We deliberately based our analysis on the company which provides a variety of innovative projects with utilization of European and world trends in sphere of commercial real estate operations, thus we assume that the suggested study may make a positive contribution to the Central European business environment generally.

    Keywords: business planning administration; business plan; business canvas; management; feasibility study; road mapping

    Full text: https://ideas.repec.org/a/prg/jnlcbr/v2020y2020i1id227p20-42.html

     

  • Trade Liberalisation and Sustainability: A Case Study of Agro-Food Transport Optimisation

    Zoltan Lakner, Anna Kiss, Bela Vizvari and Jozsef Popp. European Research Studies Journal, 2021, vol. XXIV, issue 1, 822-839

    Abstract:
    Purpose: The aim of the article is to describe the characteristic features of the international trade in agricultural products, and to determine how the optimisation of international flow of goods could contribute to reducing the environmental burden of transport. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a combination of three key databases - FAOSTAT bilateral commodity trade matrices, CEPII distance tables and the EcoTransIT. Findings: It has been proven that the current international trade relations form dense, scale-free networks, shaped under the influence of both bi- and multilateral historical, cultural, political and economic relations is approved. By the application of linear optimisation for the minimisation of total greenhouse gas emissions it can be proven that the trade in wheat is far from optimal. Theoretically, concerning 2016 is possible to reduce environmental pollution by 38%. In the case of maize the re-organisation of the global trade network could reduce pollution by 18%, and in the case of soya beans by 8%. Comparing the difference between actual and optimal transportation networks based of historical data (2007-2016) it could be proven, that the average additional environmental burden, caused by suboptimal international transport were in case of wheat 36%, in case of maize 11% and in case of soya beans 10%. Practical implications: The optimization of the global trade and international transport of these three commodities offers a more than 500 kt/year decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. Comparative analysis of current and optimized trade networks highlights the increasing importance of the role of regional hubs in key exporting states. Originality/value: This fact underlines the importance the efforts for liberalisation of international trade system.

    Keywords: EcoTransIT; globalization; international trade; linear programming. (search for similar items in EconPapers)

    Full text: https://www.proquest.com/docview/2529335216/fulltextPDF/738FE5B7268C41B5PQ/1?accountid=50487

     

  • Trade-offs for optimal energy efficiency of road transportation: Domestic cases of developing countries

    Akbar U., Khan M.A., Akmal M., Toth Naárné Z.E., Oláh J., (2020). Trade-offs for optimal energy efficiency of road transportation: Domestic cases of developing countries. Energies , 13(24), 6538 DOI: 10.3390/en13246538

    Abstract:
    The increase in domestic transportation in developing countries may adversely affect the energy efficiency of road transportation due to effective productivity and carbon dioxide emissions (CO2). When evaluating quantitatively the countries on the efficiency frontier, poor efficiency can still be seen sometimes due to the slack available in undesirable output measures. This paper uses desirable and undesirable output variables, such as passenger-kilometers (PKM), tones-kilometers (TKM), and carbon dioxide (CO2), to compute the weakly efficient decision-making units (DMUs). The data envelopment analysis (DEA) technology is used to assess the efficiencies of the decision-making units (DMUs), which are countries in our case. Then, the trade-off method with efficient binding surfaces is used to attain the optimal efficiencies of the weakly efficient DMUs. The marginal rates aid this trade-off analysis. Resultantly, such marginal trade-offs do not deteriorate the efficiency of the DMUs below the frontier line. We calculate the maximum change (margin) in a specific variable amount when another variable’s amount is changed. Thus, such a computation gives us different margins, with which each output variable can be a traded off to bring a DMU further toward the closest optimal point possible. The marginal trade-off can help the managers and policymakers in effective decision-making, and it is further recommended to address efficiency damages (by the undesired outputs).

    Keywords: data envelopment analysis; trade-offs; efficiency; road transportations

    Full-text: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/24/6538

     

  • Trends in the Economic Efficiency of Polish Power Generation Companies

    Zamasz Krzysztof, Trends in the Economic Efficiency of Polish Power Generation Companies, Proceedings of the 34th International Business Information Management Association Conference (IBIMA), 13-14 November 2019, Madrid, Spain

    Abstract:
    Organisational, legal and structural changes in the power sector resulted in an increased risk of power companies in Poland. In particular, this applies to the power generation sub-sector, which is most exposed to a number of risks, including investment risks. The liberalization of the market and the introduction of competition made that revenues from the sale of energy ceased to be guaranteed in any way, among others due to the fact that long-term contracts were banned. Companies generating
    power in conventional units must now compete not only with other producers, but also with units based on renewable energy sources and controllable reception.??? In Poland, the intensification of this problem may soon lead to the situation observed in the German market, where producers are forced to accept drastically lower or even negative electricity prices at selected times in order to avoid the frequent switching off and on of power generating units, leading to the deterioration of their
    service life. It should also be noted that power companies are obliged to fulfill a number of obligations imposed on them by regulations directly affecting their economic results. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the economic efficiency of selected power companies operating in Poland in the period 2003-2018. In the research process, the author used statistical and descriptive methods and real options analysis.

    Keywords: economic efficiency, power sector, power company, Poland.

  • Understanding the Role of Self-Efficacy in Moderating Work-Family Interface and Emotional Exhaustion

    Murtaza G., Mousa M., Roques O., (2020). Understanding the Role of Self-Efficacy in Moderating Work-Family Interface and Emotional Exhaustion. Human Systems Management. DOI: 10.3233/HSM-190785

    Abstract:
    BACKGROUND:Over the years, an overwhelming amount of studies demonstrate that Work-family conflict is a major source of employees’ stress that may have obvious implications for organizational members. OBJECTIVE:This article investigates the effect of the work-family interface among service sector employees’ emotional exhaustion and the moderating role played by self-efficacy (SE). METHOD:Based on the responses of 202 telecom service employees, the authors examine proposed hypotheses through multiple moderated regression analyses. RESULTS:The results indicate that work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related to emotional exhaustion and negatively related to the work-family facilitation (WFF) and family-work facilitation (FWF). Additionally, we identify the potential moderating effect of SE on the relationship between facilitation and exhaustion but find no support for conflict and exhaustion. CONCLUSION:Our study findings lend support for one sub-principle of conservation of resource theory, that “gain begets further gain spiral” and enhances wellbeing. Implications for theory and practice regarding service employee management are discussed.

    Keywords: Work-family interface, exhaustion, self-efficacy, personal resource, service employees

  • What Does It Take to Be a Good Lawyer? The Underpinnings of Success in a Rapidly Growing Legal Market

    Bialowolski, P.; Weziak-Bialowolska, D. What Does It Take to Be a Good Lawyer? The Underpinnings of Success in a Rapidly Growing Legal Market. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5841. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115841

    Abstract:
    The study identified the principal professional domains leading to success in legal professions. Based on a sample of 300 Polish attorneys, with the use of confirmatory factor analysis and 22 specific items, four principal domains of success were discerned—professional skills, marketing skills, reputation, and ethics. The evolution of these domains in Poland between 2005 and 2017 was examined, revealing that the importance of marketing skills significantly increased, while the remaining three domains lost importance over the study period. The results also indicated that legal professionals were more inclined to value professional skills, marketing skills, and ethics when their clients had an ability to measure the quality of legal service provided. The same domains transpired as important for lawyers, who attributed high importance to the role of the bar.

    Keywords: legal service quality; sustainable success in legal professions; efficient service provision; structural equation modelling; market growth

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/11/5841/htm

  • Why him not me? Inclusive/Exclusive Talent Identification in Academic Public Context, International Journal of Public Administration

    M. Mousa, Hiba K. Massoud , Rami M. Ayoubi & Ghulam Murtaza. (2021). Why him not me? Inclusive/Exclusive Talent Identification in Academic Public Context, International Journal of Public Administration, https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2021.1887217

    Abstract: 
    We investigated the relevance of introducing talent identification/classifications among Egyptian public business schools, as perceived by academics, and the expected outcomes of such proposed classification system. We employed thematic analysis of data collected from interviews with 49 academics from three large business schools. Our findings revealed the following themes: no clear systems for talent management; being talent means going the extra mile in research; talent identification/classification system is irrelevant due to: academic corruption; age and religious discrimination; the unique nature of higher education work; and the fears of enforcing clashes, inequality and exclusion. We confirmed that any attempt to constitute talent classifications in the Egyptian higher education does not appear to be a prioritized need for the sector. Nevertheless, we did assert the need to manage motivational, structural, consequential and social responsibility boundaries before the need for constituting any system for talent identification and classifications.

    Keywords: Talent management, talent identification, academic talents, higher education, human resource management, egypt

    Full text: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01900692.2021.1887217

  • Workplace Fun, Organizational Inclusion and Meaningful Work: an Empirical Study

    Mohamed Mousa, Rami M. Ayoubi, Hiba K. Massoud, Walid Chaouali (2021). Workplace Fun, Organizational Inclusion and Meaningful Work: an Empirical Study, Public Organization Review. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-020-00496-z

    Abstract:
    This paper addresses nurses working in public hospitals in order to find out how workplace fun may affect their perception of both organizational inclusion and meaningful work. Moreover, and given the novelty of organizational inclusion (OI) and meaningful work, more specifically in the context of developing countries, the authors explore the relationship between OI and meaningful work. A total of 360 questionnaires were collected from nurses in public hospitals in Egypt. The authors used SmartPLS 3 since it has less restrictions regarding complex models, non-normal data, small samples and is appropriate for higher-order constructs (Hair et al. 2017). The findings show that workplace fun has positive effects on organizational inclusion and meaningful work for nurses. Moreover, organizational inclusion positively affects meaningful work for nurses.

    Keywords: Workplace fun, Organizational inclusion, Meaningful work, Public hospitals, Egypt

    Full text: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11115-020-00496-z

  • Workplace mobbing in Polish and Lithuanian organisations with regard to corporate Social Responsibility

    Włodzimierz Sroka, Jolita Vveinhardt „Workplace mobbing in Polish and Lithuanian organisations with regard to corporate Social Responsibility”,  International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(8)(2944), · April 2020, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17082944

    Abstract:
    The ‘mobbing’ phenomenon is regarded as the actions or behaviour referring to an employee or directed against an employee, comprising persistent and drawn-out harassment or intimidation of that employee. This phenomenon causes substantial negative workplace consequences, but, above all, one should stress the consequences for the victims, which are devastating. This has been observed in a variety of organisations, regardless of the sector and country. Given these facts, the purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of workplace mobbing in Polish and Lithuanian organisations with regard to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The research sample included a group of 823 entities operating in both countries in both the private and public sectors (410 from Lithuania and 413 from Poland). A closed-type questionnaire was used in the survey. Several research methods including factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman–Brown, factor loading, and total item correlation were used in our study. The results achieved showed that there were both similarities as well as differences between the analysed organisations. More specifically, our research revealed that: (1) Employee attitude to CSR depends on the company’s sector of activity and the country; (2) In Poland, workplace mobbing is more prevalent in the public sector than in the private, whilst in Lithuania there were no substantial differences; (3) Organisations that implemented the CSR concept showed less imposed mobbing prevalence; and (4) Employees who faced mobbing in the workplace had worse relationships with clients and users of the company’s services/products.

    Keywords: workplace mobbing; CSR; Poland; Lithuania

    Full text: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/8/2944/htm

     

  • Vaccination as a Matter of Security and Security Management in European Union

    by Paulina Polko, Sabina Ratajczak

    Abstract:

    Purpose: Due to pandemic Covid-19, health security has grown into a key sectoral security area, and the virus, itself, the threat it carries and the fight against it have been securitized. One of the threads that is securitized is the issue of Sars-CoV-2 vaccination. The research aims to present securitization process on that field using the case of institutions of European Union. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors analyzes the documents issued or signed by the Health Security Committee and the statements of its representatives regarding the vaccination process, its importance and method of carrying out in terms of the relationship between this issue and ensuring security. Findings: Vaccination against covid-19 is presented as a "security issue" and thus securitized. However, the process has several dimensions, the ways in which it is carried out and the goals that EU decision-makers want to achieve with it. The multi-level narrative and the ubiquitous language of threats make the administration of the dose of the vaccine much more important than just protecting one's own health, for which you can / should change the law, rules of the game and even influence the freedom of economic activity. Practical implications: Making an issue a security issue through the process of effective securitization brings with it a social consent to special (extraordinary) actions by political decision-makers, which may have an impact on the functioning of societies, including the observance of their rights. Therefore, it is important to recognize such processes and prevent possible abuse of securitization processes. Originality/Value: This is a complete research for the securitization process of the Sars-CoV-2 vaccination issue.

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